Аnal Incontinence after Vaginal Delivery, Risk Factors and Quality of Life in Patients in North Macedonia

  • Rosa Spasova University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Mile Tanturovski University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Goran Kocoski University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Ivo Kjaev University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Dafina Karadzova University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Katerina Stankova Ninova University Clinic for obstetrics and gynecology - Skopje, University of “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” - Skopje, Vodnjanska Bld. No.17, 1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
  • Gligor Tofoski INA Obstetrics and gynecology, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Keywords: anal incontinence, vaginal delivery, risk factors, St. Mark's Anal Incontinence Score (SMIS), Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQLS)

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the impact of individual obstetric risk factors on occurrences of anal incontinence in patients after vaginal delivery, and its impact on quality of life.  We designed the study as a cross-sectional, and developed the research at the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of "Ss. Cyril and Methodius" in Skopje, Macedonia, over a period of one year. In this study, we engaged patients in their reproductive age, who had undergone at least one vaginal delivery (spontaneous or assisted vaginal delivery). The degree of incontinence was determined using St. Mark's Anal Incontinence Score (SMIS). We used a specific questionnaire related to anal incontinence to assess quality of life Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQLS) Four hundred and seventy (470) patients were included in the study, 30% of which (141 patients) had St. Mark’s scores ≥8. The following factors were found to influence the St. Mark’s score: number of vaginal deliveries, delivery mode, fetal macrosomia, use of episiotomy and the existence of perineal lacerations Results of this study show consistency with data published so far on the influence of obstetric risk factors on occurrences of anal incontinence in patients after vaginal delivery. Changes in anal continence are expressed in increased St. Mark’s score. Our study showed that the following factors had statistically significant impact on the score value: multi-parity, delivery mode, use of episiotomy, fetal macrosomia and perineal injury (grades 3 and 4).

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Published
2020-02-04
Section
Articles