The Relationship Between Meal Timing and Body Mass Index Readings of College Students

  • Valeriya Marchenko Economics Department, Long Island University Post, 700 Northern Boulevard, Brookville, NY 11548, USA
  • Dr. Veronika Dolar Assistant Professor, Department of Politics, Economics and Law, State University of New York SUNY Old Westbury, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
Keywords: Obesity, College Students, Meal Timing

Abstract

In this study the relation between Body Mass Index (BMI) of college students and the timing of their food consumption was investigated to see if the timing of students’ meals affects their metabolism and BMI. For this study a survey was developed and disseminated using email distribution lists, and the survey link was shared using social media.  By applying the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Regression analysis results show that being older, female, and being a freshmen compared to being a senior contribute to higher BMI. In addition, less exercise, less smoking, more napping and more snacking contributed to a higher BMI. Finally, waking up later during school days, waking up earlier when there is no school, having lunch later when there is no school and lower frequency of food consumption per day were also correlated with higher BMI.

References

. "CDC Overweight & Obesity", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. J. Janeway, "Preventing the Freshman 5, 10, 15, 40 - Obesity Action Coalition", Obesity Action Coalition, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://www.obesityaction.org/community/article-library/preventing-the-freshman-5-10-15-40/. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. "Obesity and overweight", Who.int, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. "Guard your health during busy, pressure-filled December", www.heart.org, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.heart.org/en/news/2018/12/13/guard-your-health-during-busy-pressure-filled-december. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. J. Nathaniel F. Watson, "A Twin Study of Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index", PubMed Central (PMC), 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823270/. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. M. Grandner, E. Schopfer, M. Sands-Lincoln, N. Jackson and A. Malhotra, "Relationship between sleep duration and body mass index depends on age", Obesity, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 2491-2498, 2015. Available: 10.1002/oby.21247 [Accessed 15 July 2020].

. K. Baron, K. Reid, A. Kern and P. Zee, "Role of Sleep Timing in Caloric Intake and BMI", Obesity, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1374-1381, 2011. Available: 10.1038/oby.2011.100 [Accessed 15 July 2020].

. T. Olds, C. Maher and L. Matricciani, "Sleep Duration or Bedtime? Exploring the Relationship between Sleep Habits and Weight Status and Activity Patterns", Sleep, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1299-1307, 2011. Available: 10.5665/sleep.1266.

. "Why Your Metabolism Slows Down With Age", Healthline, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/metabolism-and-age. [Accessed: 15- Jul- 2020].

. M. Freedman, "Gender, Residence and Ethnicity Affect Freshman BMI and Dietary Habits", American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 34, no. 5, 2010. Available: 10.5993/ajhb.34.5.1.

. R. Desai, M. Manley, M. Desai and M. Potenza, "Gender Differences in the Association Between Body Mass Index and Psychopathology", CNS Spectrums, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 372-383, 2009. Available: 10.1017/s1092852900023026.

. Y. Fuse, A. Hirao, H. Kuroda, M. Otsuka, Y. Tahara and S. Shibata, "Differential roles of breakfast only (one meal per day) and a bigger breakfast with a small dinner (two meals per day) in mice fed a high-fat diet with regard to induced obesity and lipid metabolism", Journal of Circadian Rhythms, vol. 10, no. 0, p. 4, 2012. Available: 10.1186/1740-3391-10-4.

. K. Reid, K. Baron and P. Zee, "Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults", Nutrition Research, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 930-935, 2014. Available: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.09.010.

. T. Parsons, O. Manor and C. Power, "Physical activity and change in body mass index from adolescence to mid-adulthood in the 1958 British cohort", International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 197-204, 2005. Available: 10.1093/ije/dyi291.

. S. Dare, D. Mackay and J. Pell, "Relationship between Smoking and Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study of 499,504 Middle-Aged Adults in the UK General Population", PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4, p. e0123579, 2015. Available: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123579.

. Y. Leng, F. Cappuccio, P. Surtees, R. Luben, C. Brayne and K. Khaw, "Daytime napping, sleep duration and increased 8-year risk of type 2 diabetes in a British population", Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 996-1003, 2016. Available: 10.1016/j.numecd.2016.06.006.

. A. OFFER, "Body Weight and Self-Control in the United States and Britain since the 1950s", Social History of Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 79-106, 2001. Available: 10.1093/shm/14.1.79.

. "Adolescents who skip breakfast may develop obesity", Medicalxpress.com, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-07-adolescents-breakfast-obesity.html. [Accessed: 16- Jul- 2020].

Published
2020-07-18
Section
Articles