Physical Self, Social Self, Psychological Self, and Moral Self in Reflecting Self-Concept

  • Hartuti Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Fatwa Tentama Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Muhamad Hasan Abdillah Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Rifa Nur Alifah Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Construct reliability, construct validity, moral self, psychological self, physical self, self-concept, social self, structural equation modeling


The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the self-concept as a construct and test aspects and indicators that can form this construct. Self-concept is measured by four aspects, including physical self, social self, psychological self, and moral self. The population in this study are all students of grade XI with a total sample of 60 students. The sampling technique used is simple random sampling. The data collection method is a self-concept scale. Research data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through the SmartPLS version 3.28. Based on the results of data analysis, the aspects and indicators that made up the construct of self-concept were valid and reliable. The dominant aspect reflecting the construct of self-concept is the social self with a loading factor of 0.806, and the weakest aspect reflecting the construct of the self-concept is the physical self with a loading factor of 0.703. This shows that all aspects and indicators are able to reflect and shape the construct of self-concept. Thus, the measurement model can be accepted because theories that describe self-concept fit with empirical data obtained from the subject.


. H.W. Marsh, R. Pekrun, K. Murayama, A.K. Arens, P.D. Parker, J. Guo and T. Dicke. “An Integrated model of academic self-concept development: Academic self-concept, grades, test scores, and tracking over 6 years.” Developmental Psychology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 263-280, 2018.

. P.E. Davis‐Kean and H.M. Sandler. “A meta‐analysis of measures of self‐esteem for young children: A framework for future measures.” Child Development, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 887-906, 2001.

. H.W. Marsh, L.A. Ellis and R.G. Craven. “How do preschool children feel about themselves? Unraveling Measurement and multidimensional self-concept structure.” Developmental Psychology, vol. 38 no. 3, pp. 376-393, 2002.

. S.K. Chen, Y.C. Yeh, F.M. Hwang and S.S. Lin. “The relationship between academic self-concept and achievement: A multicohort–multioccasion study.” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 23, pp. 172-178, 2013.

. H.W. Marsh and R.G. Craven. “Reciprocal effects of self-concept and performance from a multidimensional perspective: Beyond seductive pleasure and unidimensional perspectives.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 133-163, 2006."

. S. Harter. “New directions in self-development: Resurrecting the i-self.” In McInerney, D. M., Marsh, H., Craven, R. G., & Guay, F. Theory driving research: New wave perspectives on self processes and human development. New York: Information Age Publishing, 2012.

. H.W. Marsh, R.H. Parada, R.G. Craven and L. Finger. “The looking glass: A Reciprocal effects model elucidating the complex nature of bullying, psychological determinants, and the central role of self-concept.” In Bullying: Implications for the classroom, Orlando: Academic Press, 2014.

. R. Pekrun. “The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice.” Educational Psychology Review, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 315-341, 2006.

. J. Eccles. "Who am i and what am i going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action." Educational Psychologist, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 78-89, 2009.

. A.J. Elliot and C.S. Dweck. “Competence and motivation: Competence as the core of achievement motivation.” In Competence and motivation. New York: Guilford Press, 2005.

. S.L. Christenson, A.L. Reschly and C. Wylie. Research on student engagement. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

. A. Rodríguez-Fernández, L. Droguett and L. Revuelta. “School and personal adjustment in adolescence: the role of academic self-concept and perceived social support.” Revista de Psicodidáctica, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 397-415, 2012.

. E.A. Skinner, T.A. Kindermann and C.J. Furrer. “A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and Assessment of children's behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom.” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 493-525, 2009.

. R. Ryberg. “Positive self-concept predicts youth staying in school longer in India.“ Advances in Life Course Research, vol. 37, pp. 1-55, 2018.

. L.H. Lippman, R. Ryberg, R. Carney and K.A. Moore. Workforce connections: Key “soft skills” that foster youth workforce success: Toward a consensus across fields. Washington: Child Trends, 2018.

. B. Simons-Morton and R. Chen. “Peer and parent influences on school engagement among early adolescents.“ Youth & Society, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 3-25, 2009.

. H.J. Bang, C. Suárez-Orozco and E. O’Connor. “Immigrant students’ homework: Ecological perspective on facilitators and impediments to task completion.” American Journal of Education, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 25-55, 2011.

. P.A. Chase, L.J. Hilliard, G.J. Geldhof, D.J. Warren and R.M. Lerner. “Academic achievement in the high school years: The changing role of school engagement.“ Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 884-896, 2014.

. S. Kozan, A.D. Fabio, D.L. Blustein and M.E. Kenny. “The role of social support and work-related factors on the school engagement of Italian high school students.“ Journal of Career Assessment, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 345-354, 2014.

. R.A. Madill, S.D. Gest and P.C. Rodkin. “Students' perceptions of relatedness in the classroom: The roles of emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions, children's aggressive-disruptive behaviors, and peer social preference.” School Psychology Review, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 86-105, 2014.

. D.D. Chaplin. Empowerment zones and e-rate application rates. Washington: Ther Service, 2016.

. G.W. Stuart and Sundeen. Principles, and practice of psychiatric nursing. Louis: Mosby, 2016.

. J. Waddington. “Developing primary school students’ foreign language learner self-concept.” System, vol. 82, pp. 39-49, 2019.

. J.F. Calhoun and J.R. Acocella. Psychology of assessment and human relationship. New York: McGraw Hill, 2004.

. M., Jansen, U. Schroeders, O. Lüdtke and H.W. Marsh. “The dimensional structure of students’ self-concept and interest in science depends on course composition.” Learning and Instruction, vol. 60, pp. 20-28, 2019.

. F. García, E. Gracia and A. Zeleznova. “Validation of the English version of the five-factor self-concept questionnaire.” Psicothema, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 549-555, 2013.

. N. Pellas. “The influence of computer self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and self-esteem on student engagement in online learning programs: Evidence from the virtual world of second life.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 35, pp. 157-170, 2014.

. F. Preckel, C. Niepel, M. Schneider and M. Brunner. “Self-concept in adolescence: A longitudinal study on reciprocal effects of self-perceptions in academic and social domains.” Journal of Adolescence, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1165-1175, 2013.

. H.W. Marsh and R. Shavelson. “Self-concept: Its multifaceted, hierarchical structure.” Educational Psychologist, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 107-123, 1985.

. F. Tentama and M.H. Abdillah. “Student employability examined from academic achievement and self-concept.” International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 243-248, 2019.

. A.M. Hadley, E.C. Hair and K.A. Moore. “Assessing what kids think about them selves: A guide to adolescent self-concept for out of school time program practitioners.“ Research to Results Child Trends, vol. 32, pp. 1-6, 2008.

. Berzonsky. Moral development child. USA: The MacMillan Psychology References Series, 2001.

. R.J. Shavelson, J.J. Hubner and G.C. Stanton. “Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations.” Review of Educational Research, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 407-441, 1976.

. H.H. Kelley. “The processes of causal attribution.” American Psychologist, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 107-128, 1973.

. R. West and L.H. Turner. Introducing communication theory: Analysis and application. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2017.

. S. Mercer. Towards an understanding of language learner self-concept. New York: Springer Science Business Media, 2011.

. J.E. Ormrod. Educational psychology: Developing learners. NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall, 2013.

. H. Latan. Structural equation modeling concepts and applications using LISREL 8,80 (in Indonesian). Bandung: Alfabeta, 2012.

. H.M. Jogiyanto. The concept and application of variance-based structural equation modeling in business research (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: UPP STIM YKPN, 2011.

. J.F. Hair, W.C. Black, B.J. Babin and R.E. Anderson. Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2010.

. W. Abdillah and J. Hartono. Partial Least Square (PLS): Alternative of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in business research (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi, 2015.

. J.F. Jr. Hair, G.T.M. Hult, C. Ringle and M. Sarstedt. A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications, 2016.

. W.C. Liu, C.K.J. Wang and E.J. Parkins. “A longitudinal study of students' academic self‐concept in a streamed setting: The Singapore context.” British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 567-586, 2005.

. L. Yorke. “Validation of the academic self-concept questionnaire in the Vietnam school survey round 1.” Young Lives An International Study of Childhood Poverty, pp. 1-2, 2016.

. M. Bong. “Tests of the internal/external frames of reference model with subject-specific academic self-efficacy and frame-specific academic self-concepts.” Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 102–110, 1998.

. Y. Park. “How motivational constructs interact to predict elementary students' reading performance: examples from attitudes and self-concept in reading.” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 347-358, 2011.

. D. Lafontaine, V. Dupont, D. Jaegers and P. Schillings. "Self concept in reading: Factor structure, cross-cultural invariance, and relationships with reading achievement in an international context (PIRLS 2011).” Studies in Educational Evaluation, vol. 60, pp. 78-89, 2019.

. S.D. Mandelman, M, Tan, S.A. Kornilov, R.J. Sternberg and E.L. Grigorenko. “The metacognitive component of academic self-concept: The development of a triarchic self-scale.” Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 73-86, 2010.

. S. Harter. “The perceived competence scale for children.” Child Development, pp. 87-97, 1982.

. N.E. Sherwood, W.C. Taylor, M. Treuth, L.M. Klesges, T. Baranowski, A. Zhou, C. Pratt, B. McClanahan, T.N. Robinson, I. Pruitt and W. Miller. “Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8-to 10-year-old African-American girls in the girls health enrichment multisite study (GEMS).” Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, pp. 60-68, 2004.

. D.U. Alfansuri, A. Rusilowati and S. Ridlo. “Development of instrument self-concept assessment student on learning mathematics in junior high school.” Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation, vol. 7, no.1, pp. 1-8, 2018.

. W.R. Borg and M.D. Gall. Education research: An introduction. New YorkLondon: Longman, 2007.