An Overview of Saturation State of Groundwater with Respect to Some Common Minerals in South Central Ontario


  • Mezmure Haile-Meskale HydroGeoSciencesGroup (HGSG), 207–19 Four Winds Drive, Toronto, M3J 2S9, Canada


Solubility index, Langelier Index, activity coefficient, open system, closed system.


This study examines the saturation state of the groundwater within the South Central Ontario.  An Excel Spread sheet methodology has been employed to calculate saturation states with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum and halite.  Having revealed the different factors involved, the methodology was tested on some selected samples within laboratory error +/- 2%.  When the results were compared with Langelier index (LI) and with the PhreeqC codes, the methodology was found to be consistently accurate for fixed electrical charges (not requiring Eh data), and with low to moderate ionic strengths. It can be understood from this study that, when saturation indices are extracted from large database and plotted on maps, they can be very useful  in quickly observing spatial variability of saturation states that could be related to groundwater flow systems, including chemistry of formations (aquifers) and their variability with depth of wells or  recharge/discharge conditions.  


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How to Cite

Haile-Meskale, M. (2017). An Overview of Saturation State of Groundwater with Respect to Some Common Minerals in South Central Ontario. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 36(5), 33–47. Retrieved from