Inhibitory Efficacy of Geranium stepporum L. extracts Against Some Species of Bacteria and Fungi
AbstractInhibitory efficacy of Geranium stepporum L. extracts (aqueous, ethanol and methanol) against two gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis), two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis) and four pathogenic fungi (Microsprum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Pencillium chrysogenum and Fusarium oxysporeum) was studied, tannins and flavonoids contents by using HPLC technique was identified as well glycosides and tannin extracted to testing its biological activities. The results showed that the examined plant contains all the active compounds that were detected, the glycoside with 15.64mm diameter was the most effective against the studied bacteria compared to the negative control and the other studied extracts, Proteus mirabilis with 11.06 diameter is the most affected by the extracts compared to the rest examined bacteria, likewise the results showed that the extracts of water (hot and cold), alcohol (ethanol, methanol, and methanol) and glycosides were more effective against the examined fungi than tannin extract, the species T. andagrophytes with 12.11mm and F. oxysporeum with 11.48mm diameter were most affected by all extracts compared to other tested fungi, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, and tannins were found to have different concentrations. The quercetin at 1.45ppm and rutin at 1.23ppm. were the most concentrated than other studied compounds, the results also seemed a difference in the concentration of active compounds between the entire aerial plant parts and underground parts.
. Al-Ani and Aus Hilal Jassim (1998). A studying of local black bean components Nigella sativa and their extracts effect on some microorganisms. Master Thesis, Faculty of Science, Mustansiriya University, Iraq.
. Ahmad, M.; and Nazil, S. (1989). Studies on tannins from bark of pinus roxburghi. J . Chem. Soc. Pakis., 15, pp: 213- 217.
. Al-Rifa'i and Fatin Nouri Mula Abd Hussein (2005). Isolation and diagnosis of contaminated fungus for cosmetics and the possibility of using some plant extracts in their conservation. PhD thesis. Department of Biology - Faculty of Science - University of Mosul.
. Bautista. M; Madrigal–Santillán. E; Morales-González. A; Gayosso–del ucio. J. A; Madrigal -Bujaidar. E ; Chamorro-Cevallos. G; Álvarez, G. onzález.I; Benedi. J; Aguilar-Faisal. J. L. and Morales-González. J. A . (2015). An Alternative hepatoprotective and Antioxidant agent: The Geranium . Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. . 12(4), pp: 96-105.
. Ben Hsouna, A. and Hamdi, N. (2012). Phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils and organic extracts from Pellargonium graveolens growing in Tunisia. Lipids in Health and Disease; 11:167
. Bouaziz, M.; Dhouib, A.; Loukil, S.; Boukhris, M. and Sayadi, S. (2009). Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts of some wild plants collected from the south of Tunisia. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (24), pp. 7017-7027
. Egorove, N. S. (1985).Antibiotics a scientific approach. Mir Publishers .Moscow.
. Fahmy, I. R.(1933). "Constituents of plant crud drugs. Ist". Ed-Poul Barbey-Cairo. Egypt.
. Fazary, A. E.; Taha, M.; and Ju, Y. H. (2008). Iron complexation studies of gallic acid. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 54(1), pp: 35-42
. Fecka. I.; Kowalczyk. A. and Cisowski.W. (2001). Phenolic Acids and Depsides from Some Species of the Erodium Genera. Z. Naturforsch. 56c, pp: 943-950
. Grand, A.; Verpoort, R.; Wondergem, P. A. and Pousset, J. L.(1988). Anti-infection phytotherapies of tree-Sarannah Sengal (west-africa). 11-Antimicrobial activity of 33 species. J. Ethanopharmacol., 22, pp:25-31.
. Harborne, J. B. (1973). Phtochemica methods, Aguide to modern techniques of plant analysis chapman and Hall Ltd. London. pp: 159-165.
. Iancu. C. E; Cioancă, O.; Hăncianu, M. and Mircea, C. (2016). Phytochemical profile OF Two cultivated pelargonium(Geraniaceae) Species. FARMACIA, Vol. 64, 6. pp: 840-843.
. Igwenyi, I. O.; and Elekwa, A. E. (2016). Phytochemical Analysis and Determination of Vitamin Contents of Geranium Robertianum. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS). e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861.Volume 13, Issue 6 Ver., pp: 44-47.
. Leyton, S. M. and Beltramino. J. B.(2015). Evaluation of a Nipple Sealer Based on Brad Infusion. "Science Stays True Here .Biological and Chemical Research, Volume, 3pp:45-355, Science Signpost Publishing.
. Meran, S. H. S.(2009) . Systematic study of the genera Biebersteinia Stephan and Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. PhD thesis, University of Sulaimany. Iraq.
. Miller. D. M. (2002). The taxonomy of Pelargonium species and cultivars, their origins and growth in the wild. Geraniums and Pelargonium. The genera Geranium and Pelargonium. In Maria Lis-Balchin (ed.). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-Industrial Profiles. Published by Taylor and Francis, London. pp. 49-79.
. Mitscher, L. A.; Leu, R. , Bathala, M. S.; Beal, J. L. and White, R. (1972). Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. lioydia; 35, pp:157-166 .
. Newall, C. A.; Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. (1996). Herbal Medicines. A guide for Health care Professionals . The Pharmaceutical Press. London . pp:69-70.
. Öhretoulu, D. Sakar, M. K. and Sterner, O.(2011). Polyphenolic compounds from Geranium purpureum Vill. growing in Turkey . Turk J Chem 35, pp:809 – 814.0420.
. Öhretoulu, D.; Sakar, M. K.; Ekizoulu, M. and Özalp, M. (2007). Free Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial activities of Three Geranium Species Growing in Turkey. Fabad J. Pharm. Sci., 32, pp:59-63 .
. Pantev, A.; Ivancheva. S.; Staneva, L. And Serkedjieva, J. (2006). Biologically Active Constituents of a Polyphenol Extract from Geranium sanguineum L. with Anti-Influenza Activity. Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen. Naturforsch. 61c, pp:508-516
. Radulovic, N.; Dekic, M. and Stojanovic Radi,´ C. Z. (2011). Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Geranium columbinum L. and G. lucidum L. (Geraniaceae). Turk J Chem. Tubitak. pp:499 – 512
. Seal, T. (2016). Quantitative HPLC analysis of phenolic acids, flavonoids and ascorbic acid in four different solvent extracts of two wild edible leaves, Sonchus arvensis and Oenanthe linearis of North-Eastern region in India. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 6 (02), pp. 157-166
. Shihata, I. M. (1951). Apharmacolo-gical study of Anagallis arvensis M. D. vet. Thesis Cairo University.
. Şöhretoğlu, D.; Ekizoğlu. M.; Özalp, M. and Sakar, M. K. (2008). Free Radical Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Geranium Species. Hacettepe University Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy Volume 28 . Number 2. pp. 115-124
. Ukida, M.; Akihisa, T.; Yasukawa, K.; Tokuda, H.; Suzuki, T. and Kimura, Y.( 2006). Anti-inflammatory, anti- tumor promoting and cytotoxic activities of constituents of Marigold (Calendula officinallis) flowers. J. Nat. Prod., 96, pp:1692- 1696.
. Wagh, V. V.; Datt, B. and Husain, T. (2015). An Assessment of Diversity of Genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) in India with Special Emphasis on Indian Himalayan Region. Journal of Biodiversity Management & Forestry 4:2. pp1-6.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.