Bacterio-Chemical Assessment of Hand-Dug Wells in New Haven, Enugu State Nigeria

  • Kenneth Chika Agaba
  • Emmanuel Nnameka Uhuo
  • Chinyere F Ekpendu
Keywords: Assessment, bacterio-chemical, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, hand-dug well.


The focus of the study was a bacterio-chemical analysis of hand-dug wells in New Haven, Enugu State Nigeria. Three wells, W1, W2, and W3 were randomly selected for the study. The method adopted for the selection of the wells was a simple random sampling. A total of 180 water samples from the wells were analyzed for metals and enteric bacteria. The enteric bacteria were identified using Gram reaction, lactose fermentation, indole, and catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer procedures. The metal concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result of the study showed that the average concentrations of iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and lead were within the permitted limits stipulated by WHO and The Federal Republic of Nigeria. Bacteria identified were Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella. It was concluded that water from the wells in New Haven, Enugu State Nigeria should be treated before they can be used for drinking and other domestic uses.


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