Analysis of Continuous Education Services by Family Doctors in High Risk Cardiometabolic Patients

  • Adriati alisakti Postgraduate School
  • Suryani As’ad Departement of Nutrition
  • A. Armyn Nurdin Department of Public Health
  • Gatot S. Lawrence Department of Pathology Anatomy
  • Nurdin Perdana Departemet of Hospital Management
  • Alimin Maidin Departemet of Hospital Management
  • Peter Kabo Department of Cardiology ; Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Burhanuddin Bahar Departemet of Biostatistics; Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Sri Ramadhani Department of Public Health
Keywords: cardiometabolic, continuous education service, high risk.


This study aims to determine the effect of handling the concept of family medicine in continuous education services to patients with Cardiometabolic problems in the Elderly based on nutritional status and metabolic status.This research is a type of Quasy experimental research. Sampling was conducted at PKM Panambungan Makassar during the study period November 2016 - March 2017 taken by purposive sampling method that is to determine the sample based on the inclusion criteria.The results showed that there were 57 cardiometabolic patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were divided into 2 groups receiving treatment with continuous education service and treatment group without continuous education service. This research uses a purposive sampling method that is to determine the sample based on the inclusion criteria to avoid the diversity in the sampling. The statistical test using independent T-test showed the difference of mean percentage of IMT examination result (r = 0.001), between continuous education service group (-13,19%) and the group without continuous education service (1,57%). Systolic blood pressure between continuous education (-0.36%) and with continuous education (4.32%) was significantly different (r = 0.116).Diastolic blood pressure between the continuous education service group (-3.82%) and with the group without continuous education service (-4.36%) did not differ significantly (r = 0.871). Cholesterol levels between continuous education service group (17.72%) and group without continuous education service (-5.72%) differed significantly (r = 0.003). GDS levels between continuous education service groups (-13.81%) and those without continuous education service (4.07%) differed significantly (r = 0.031). The mean of decreasing of the examination results on all variable that was found was higher in group of continuous education service. Increased BMI, GDS, and cholesterol are markers of increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Thus, improving the risk of cardiometabolic disease except on the results of systolic and diastolic pressure tests, significant in groups with continuous education services.


. Heval M Kelli1, Ibrahim Kassas2 and Omar M Lattouf et al., CardioMetabolic Syndrome: A Global Epidemic. Emory University School of Medicine, USA.Diabetes Metab 2015, 6:3

. Grundy, SM. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular disease.

. Lawrence GS, Kaniawati M, Wijaya A. High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein profile in diabetic patients. Paper presented at The 9th Congress of The Indonesian Heart Association, Cardiology Update-XI & Interventional Cardiology-V. 2002; Surabaya, Indonesia.

. Lee J, Ma S, Heng D, et al. Should Central Obesity Be an Optional or Essential Component of the Metabolic Syndrome? Diabetes Care. February 2007 2007;30(2):343-347.

. American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2013, Executive Summary: Standards of Medical care in Diabetes – 2013, Diabetes Journals, S8.

. Jatta Puhkala. Effects of Lifestyle Counselling on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors (Overweight professional drivers and postpartum women at increased risk for gestational diabetes). The UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE. 2017.

. American Diabetes Association, 2013, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Care, Volume 36, Supplement 1, S67-S74.

. Ko GTC. Metabolic Syndrome or “Central Obesity Syndrome”? Diabetes Care. March 2006 2006;29(3):752.

. Bast A, Wolf G, Oberbaumer I, Walther R. Oxidative and nitrosative stress induces peroxiredoxins in pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2002;45:867-876.

. Gustafson B, Hammarstedt A, Andersson CX, Smith U. Inflamed Adipose Tissue: A Culprit Underlying the Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2276-2283.

. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care (Cardiometabolic Risk, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease). 2015:38 (Suppl. 1): S49-S57.

. Lawrence GS. Can Anti Inflammatory and Anti Oxidant Status Predict Impaired Gluce Tolerance and Coronary Artery Disease? Translating Pendulum Hypothesis. Semiloka Current Progress in Atherosclerosis Research. October 1, 2005.

. Bennett, P. Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In Le Roith et al., Diabetes Mellitus a Fundamental and Clinical Text. Philadelphia : Lippincott William & Wilkin S. 2008 ;43 (1) : 544-7.

. Sujaya, I Nyoman. “Pola Konsumsi Makanan Tradisional Bali sebagai Faktor Risiko Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 di Tabanan.” Jurnal Skala Husada”. 2009 ; 6(1) ; 75-81.

. Qatanani,M dan Lazar,MA. Mechanism of obesity-associated insulin resistance : Many choices on the menu.

. Saseen, J.J., and MacLaughlin, E.J., 2008, Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 7th ed., Mc Graw-Hill Companies, pp. 139-150.

. Lee S, Gungor N, Bacha F, Arslanian S. Insulin Resistance. Diabetes Care. August 2007 2007;30(8):2091-2097.

. Xu H. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1821-1830.

. Riset Kesehatan Dasar(Riskesdas). (2013). Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian RI tahun 2013. 2013.pdf.