Efficiency of Diode Laser as Root Canal Disinfectant Against Enterococcus faecalis: An in Vitro Study
AbstractThe objective of the in vitro study is to determine the disinfection ability of diode laser 1064 nm at different powers and duration of times against E. faecalis and detect the optimal power and time of diode laser 1064nm. Eighty human extracted single-rooted teeth were decoronated to a length 14mm from the apical foramen to the cervical border of the root, then adjusted working length to 13 mm, autoclaved and inoculated with a suspension of E. faecalis at a concentration 4×105 cfu and incubated at 37˚C for 24 hours. Sixty samples were irradiated at different powers and irradiation time 30 and 60 sec, the remainder 20 samples were control positive and negative groups. All powers and times for laser 1064 nm had significant antimicrobial effects against E. faecalis. Diode laser device seems to be highly suitable for killing E. faecalis if appropriate energy and irradiated time used.
Jain P, Yeluri R, Garg N, Mayall S, Rallan M, Gupta S, Pathivada L. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Three Different Irrigating Solution on Microorganisms in the Root Canal: An Invivo Study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(12):ZC39-42.
Sundqvist G. Ecology of the root canal flora. J Endod. 1992;18: 427-430.
Sundqvist G, Figdor D, Persson S, Sjögren U . Microbiologic analysis of teeth with failed endodontic treatment and the outcome of conservative re-treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 1998; 85(1): 86-93.
Peters OA, Laib A, Göhring TN, Barbakow F . Changes in root canal geometry after preparation assessed by high-resolution computed tomography. J Endod. 2001; 27:1-6.
Vianna ME, Gomes BP, Berber VB, Zaia AA, Ferraz CC, de Souza-Filho FJ . In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol, Oral Radiol Endod. 2004; 97: 79-84.
Benedicenti S, Speicato A and Resch A . Creation laser: applications of laser light in root canal disinfection. Productsplus. 2008; 2: 10-12.
Estrela C, Bueno MR, Couto GS, Rabelo LE, Alencar AH, Silva RG, Pecora JD, Sousa-Neto MD. Study of Root Canal Anatomy in Human Permanent Teeth in A Subpopulation of Brazil's Center Region Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography - Part 1. Braz Dent J. 2015; 26(5):530-6.
Walters M, Baumgartner J and Marshall J. Efficacy of irrigation with rotary instrumentation. J Endod. 2002; 28(12): 837–9.
Elnaghy AM, Elsaka SE. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and saline on cyclic fatigue resistance of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc reciprocating instruments. Int Endod J. 2017; 50(10):991-8.
Bach G. Use of laser systems in endodontics. Roots Int Magazin Endodontol. 2006; 1(1): 53- 57.
Recai Zan, Ihsan Hubbezoglu, Murat Unal. Evaluation of temperature rises during the application of different power levels of potassium titanyl phosphate and neodymium-doped:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers to external primary root canals. journal of dental sciences. 2016; Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 365-369
Schoop U, Kluger W, Dervisbegovic S, Goharkhay K, Wernisch J, Georgopoulos A, Sperr W and Moritz A. Innovative wavelengths in endodontic treatment. Lasers Surg Med. 2006; 38: 624–630.
Garcez AS, Núñez SC, Lage-Marques JL, Jorge AOC, and Ribeiro MS. Efficiency of NaOCl and laser-assisted photosensitization on the reduction of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006; 102(4): 93-98.
Schoop U, Kluger W, Moritz A, Nedjelik N, Georgopoulos A and Sperr W. Bactericidal effect of different laser systems in the deep layers of dentine. Lasers Surg Med. 2004; 35(2): 111-116.
Hendy J. Newest 1064nm semiconductor lasers effectiveness in periodontics and endodontics. In: Abstracts, 5th SOLA Laser Congress. Vienna, Austria. J Oral Laser Appl. 2009; 9(2/3): 154-155.
Meire MA, De Prijck K, Coenye T, Nelis HJ and De Moor RJ. Antimicrobial efficacy of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG irradiation on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on dentine Disks. J Oral Laser Appl. 2009; 9(2/3): 164-156.
Wang X, Sun Y, Kimura Y, Kinoshita J, Ishizaki NT and Matsumoto K. Effect of diode laser irradiation on smear layer removal from root canal walls and apical leakage after obturation. Photomed laser Surg. 2005; 23(6): 575-581.
Gordon W, Atabakhsh VA, Meza F, Doms A, Nissan R, Rizoiu I and Stevens RH. The antimicrobial efficacy of the Erbium, Chromium:Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium Garnet laser with radial emitting tips on root canal dentine walls infected with Enterococcus faecalis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009; 138(7): 992-1002.
Ando Y, Aoki A, Watanabe H and Ishikawa I. Bactericidal effect of Erbium:YAG laser on periodontopathic bacteria. Lasers Surg Med. 1996; 19(2): 190–200.
Elmros T, Burman LG, Bloom GD. Autolysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol. 1976; 126: 969–976.
Rosenberg B, Kemeny G, Switzer RC, Hamilton TC (1971): Quantitative evidence for protein denaturation as the cause of thermal death. Nature. 232(13): 471–473.
Parirokh M, Eghbal MJ, Asgary S, Ghoddusi J, Stowe S, Forghani F and Shahravan A. Effect of 808nm diode laser irradiation on root canal walls after smear layer removal: a scanning electron microscope study. Iran Endod J. 2007; 2(2): 37-46.
Moritz A, Jakolitsch S, Goharkhay K, Schoop U, Kluger W, Mallinger R, Sperr W and Georgopoulos A. Morphologic changes correlating to different sensitivities of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis to Nd:YAG laser irradiation through dentine. lasers surg. Med. 2000; 26(3): 250-261.
Gutknecht N, Franzen R, Schippers M, and Lampert F. Bactericidal effect of a 980-nm diode laser in the root canal wall dentin of bovine teeth. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2004; 22(1): 9–13.
Lee BS, Lin YW, Chia JS, Hsieh TT, Chen MH, Lin CP and Lan WH. Bactericidal effects of diode laser on Streptococcus mutans after irradiation through different thickness of dentine. Lasers Surg Med. 2006; 38: 62–69.
Kreisler M, Kohnen W, Beck M, Al Haj H, Christoffers AB, Götz H, Duschner H, Jansen B and d’Hoedt B. Efficacy of NaOCl/H2O2 irrigation and GaAlAs laser in decontamination of root canals in vitro. Lasers Surg Med. 2003; 32: 189–196.
Moritz A, Gutknecht N, Gohrakhay K, Schoop U, Wernisch J, Sperr W. In vitro irradiation of infected root canals with a diode laser: results of microbiologic, infrared spectrometric, and stain penetration examinations. Quintessence Int. 1997, 28(3): 205-209.
Bergmans L, Moisiadis P, Teughels W, Van Meerbeek B, Quirynen M and Lambrechts P. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on some endodontic pathogens ex vivo. Int Endod J. 2006; 39(7): 547–557.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.