Investigating the Effectiveness of Positivism Group Psychotherapy in Depression, Stress and Anxiety of Dialysis Patients

  • Zahra Saeidi Department of clinical psychology Shahid Beheshti University of medical science, Arabi street, Tehran 1985711151, Iran
  • Behrooz Birashk Department of behavioral sciences and psychological health Iran Medical University, Satarkhan street, Tehran1449614535, Iran
Keywords: Positivism group psychotherapy, depression, stress, anxiety, dialysis.


The aim of conducting this research was to investigate the effectiveness of positivism group psychotherapy in depression, stress and anxiety of dialysis Patients referring to Modarres hospital in Iran. This is a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-tests. The research sample included 26 patients (13 patients in the experimental and control groups). The patients in the experimental group took part in six weeks of group sessions for one and a half months. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was utilized for data collection. The obtained results showed that positivism group psychotherapy is effective n reduction of depression, stress, and anxiety of dialysis patients. Therefore it is recommended that oncologists use the positivism group psychotherapy to reduce depression, stress, and anxiety of dialysis patients.


M. Mollahadi, A. Tayyebi, A Ebadi, M. Daneshmandi. “Comparison between anxiety, depression and stress in hemodialysis and kidney transplantation patients” Iranian journal of Critical Care Nursing, 2010; 2(4): 153-6.

K. Parvan, F Abdollahzadeh , M. Ghojazade , R Ahangar .” Stressors and Methods of Coping with Stress in Peritonal Dialysis Patients” Nursing Midwifery Journal, 2010; 5(17) 34-41. [Persian]

A. Monfared , A. Safaei, Z. Panahandeh, L. Nemati . “Incidence of end-stage renal disease in Guilan Province, Iran, 2005 to 2007” Iranian Journal of kidney Diseases, 2009; 3(4): 239-41.

S. Tagey, A Kribben , A. Hohenstein , R. Mews , W. Senf. “Posttraumatic stress disorder in hemodialysis patient.” Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 50(4): 594-601.

J. Luckman, KC. Sorensen. Medical Surgical Nursing: A psychophysiology approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, Co; 1997.

SH. Baraz, E. Mohammadi , B. Broumand. “The effect of self-care educational program on decreasing the problems and improving the quality of life of dialysis patient. “ Hayat. 2006; 11(1, 2): 51-62. [Persian]

PL. Kimmel, EA. Peterson, KL.Weihs, SJ. Simmens, S. Alleyne , I. Cruz , JH veis. “Multiple Measurements of Depression Predict Mortality in a Longitudinal Study of Choronic Hemodialysis Outpatients.” Kidney Int 2000;57(5):2093-2098.

PL. Kimmel , RA.Peterson, KL. Weihs , SJ. Simmens, D. Boyle , I. Cruz , S Alleyne , JH. Veis. “Aspects of Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients.” J Am Soc Nephrol 1995;6(5):1418-1426.

R. Afshar , G. Ghaedi , S. Sanavi , A. Davati , A. Rajabpour . “Depression and related factors in patients undergoing conventional maintenance hemodialysis.” Daneshvar Med. 2010; 17(88): 59-66. [Persian]

M. Mollaoglu,” Percieved social support, anxiety, and self-care among patients receiving hemodialysis. “ Dial Transplant. 2006; 35(3): 144-55.

M. Yurtkuran, A. Alp, M. Yurtkuran , K. Dilek. “A modified yoga-based exercise program in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled study.” Complement Ther Med. 2007; 15(3): 164-71.

M. Bagheri nesami , E. Mohammadi , R. Sadeghi . “ Effect of Benson relaxation on the rate of disease process in rheumatoid patients referring to rheumatology research center of Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran in 2000-2001. “J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2003; 13(39): 22-8. [Persian]

A. Tayebi, A. Dehkordi , A. Ebadi , H. Sahraei, B. Einollahi. “The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender Essential Oil on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Hemodialysis Patients: A clinical Trial.” Evidence Based Care Journal 2015; 5(2): 65-74. [Persian]

SD. Cohen, L. Norris , K. Aquaviva, RA. Peterson , PL. Kimmel . “Screening, Diognosis, and Treatment of Depression in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease.” Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2(6):1332-1342.

A.Carr. Positive psychology: Handbook of psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge Press, 2003.

N. L. Sin, & S. Lyubomirsky. “Tailoring positive psychology interventions to treat depressed individuals in S. Donaldson, M. csikszentmihalyi, & J. Nakamura (Eds.), Applied positive psychology: Improving every life, health, schools, work and society (pp. 79-96). “New York: Routledge. Snyder, C. R. & Lopez, J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology, 185.

C. Roberts, R. Kane, B. Bishop, H. Matthews, H. Thomason. “The prevention of depressive symptoms in rural children: A follow-up study.” International Journal of Mental Health Promotion,2013, 6 (3), 4-15.

M.P.E. Seligman, T. Steen , N. Park, & CH. Peterson. “Positive psychology Progress: Empirical validation of interventions. “America Psychology, 2005 60(5), 410-421.

G.A. Fava, C. Ruini, C. Rafanelli, L. Finos, L. Salmaso, L. Managelli. “Well-being therapy of generalized anxiety disorder.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 200574, 26-30.

S. Dockra, A. Steptoe. “Positive affect and psychobiological processes.” Neuroscience & biology-Behavioral Reviews, 2010, 35(1), 69-75.

G. Pezent.”Exploring the role of positive psychology constructs as protective factors against the impact of negative environmental variables on the subjective well-being of older adults.” Texas A & M University, 2011.

E. Diener, M. Y. Chan. “Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. “Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 2011 3, 1-43.

N. Sin, M. Della Porta, S. Lyubomirsky. “Tailoring positive psychology intervention to treat depressed individuals. In S. Donaldson ,M. Csikszentmihaly,& J.Nakamura (Eds),Applied positive psychology: Improving everyday life, health, schools, work and society(pp.79-96). New York: Routledge. Snyder, C. R. & Lopez, J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology, 185.

C. Y. Sing, W. S Wong.”The effect of optimism on depression: The mediating and moderating role of insomnia.” Journal of Health Psychology, 2011, 16 (8), 1251-1258.

S.M. Schueller. Positive psychology. Encyclopedia of human Behavior (2nd ed), 2012, 140-147.

V.Santos, F. Paes, V. Pereira, O. Arias-Carrion, A.C. Silva, M.G. Carta, A.E. Nardi, S. machado. “The role of positive emotion and contributions of positive psychology in depression treatment: Systematic review.” Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health,2013, 9, 221-237.

L. Bolier, M. Haverman, G.J. Westerhof, H. Riper, F. Smit, E. Bohlmeijer. “Positive psychology intervention: A met-analysis of randomized controlled studies.” BMC Public Health, 2013 13 (119), 2-20.

S. Lyubomirsky, K. Layous. “How do simple positive activities increase well-being? “ Association for psychological Science, 2013, 22 (1), 57-62.

S. Sergeant, M. Mongrain.” An online optimism intervention reduces depression in pessimistic individuals.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology, 2014, 13, 157-165.

K. Layous, H. Lee, I. Choi, S. Lyubomirsky. “Culture matters when designing a successful happiness-increasing activity: A comparison of the United States and South Korea. “ Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 2014, 44 (8), 1294-1303.

T.A. Brown, B.F. Chorpita, W. Korotitsch, D.H. Barlow.” Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples” Behavior research and therapy.1997; 35(1)79-89

P.F. Lovibond, S.H. Lovibond. “The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depresion Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. “ Behaviour research and therapy.1995; 33(3):335-43

MR. Shaeiri, M. Atrifard, A. Asghari .Psychometric properties of a Persian language version of the Illness Attitude Scale in non-clinical Iranian population.” Stress and health, 2008;24(2):99-107

LS, Bbaines, JT. Joseph. RM. Jinal. “Prospective Randomized Study of Individual and Group Psychotherapy Verous Controls in Recipients of Renal Transplants.” Kindy Int, 2004 May; 65(5):1937-42.

YC. Lii, SL. Tsay, TJ.Wang. “Group Intervention to Improve Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients” J Clin Nurs 2007 Nov; 16(11C):268-75.

SL. Tsay ,YC. Lee. “Effect of an Adaptation Training Programme for Patients with end stage Renal Disease “J Adv Nurs 2005 Apr; 50(1):39-46.

MZ. Azhar, SL. Varma. “Religious Psychotherapy in Depressive Patients “Psychother Psychosom 1995:63(3-4):165-8.

D. Cukor.”Use of CBT of Treat Depression among Patients on Hemodialysis” Am Psychiatric Association, 2007 May; 58(5):711-712.

PS. Duarte, MC. Miyazaki, SL. Blay, R. Sesso. “cognitive-behavioral Group Therapy Is an Effective Treatment for Major Depression in Hemodialysis Patients” Kidney Int 2009;76(4):414-21.

J. Maygar-Moe. "Therapists guided to positive psychological interventions” Elsevier, 2009.