International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-05-24T21:20:16+00:00 Prof. Mohamad L. A. Anabtawi Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) is <strong>multidisciplinary peer reviewed Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, and review articles in the following fields (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> On Model Selection Criterion for Finite Gaussian Mixture Models 2024-05-24T21:20:16+00:00 Aya Ben Shatwan Abdelbaset Abdalla Hatim Mohammed Eisay Bin Ismaeil Ahmed M. Mami <p>This paper delves into the realm of model selection criteria for Finite Mixture Models (FMM), focusing on key evaluation methods such as the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Integrated Completed Likelihood (ICL), and the Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT). These criteria aid in balancing model fit and complexity, guiding researchers in choosing the most appropriate FMM for analyzing simulated and real datasets. Through extensive simulation studies, the paper meticulously evaluates and contrasts the performance of these criteria under various parameter settings and sample sizes, offering valuable insights for advancements in statistical modeling. The study underscores the importance of selecting the right criterion tailored to the dataset characteristics and research objectives. It highlights the impact of sample size on model selection, noting AIC's tendency to favor complexity and potential overfitting, while BIC and ICL excel in handling sample size variations by penalizing complexity effectively. The utilization of BLRT for comparing models with different complexities aids in identifying the optimal model configuration. Statistical analyses, including p-value assessments and visual aids like scatter plots and density functions, enhance the understanding of model performance and complexity. Overall, the paper emphasizes the significance of informed model selection decisions, ensuring a robust and accurate representation of underlying models in regression analysis.</p> 2024-06-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Lived Experiences of Filipino Inclusion Teachers in Dubai Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic 2024-05-10T10:53:08+00:00 Hannah G. Constantino Therese June V. Aranas <p>Filipino inclusion teachers based in Dubai; United Arab Emirates faced numerous challenges during the global COVID-19 pandemic. This study shed light on the lived experiences of eight Filipino inclusion teachers through the lens of Kolb’s experiential learning theory. Analysis of interview transcripts using Moustakas’ transcendental phenomenological inquiry revealed that the teachers’ challenges come from their caseload, the exceptionality characteristics of students, physical distance, and adjustment of parents during the pandemic. With the demands coming from these challenges, they managed the learning environment through intensified collaboration with parents and curriculum adjustments. It is hoped that the study results will be utilized in the design of teacher education programs, preparing pre-service teachers and novice teachers for work in schools abroad. In addition, the focus on the experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic provides impetus for the creation of frameworks on how provision of educational services could be pandemic-ready. More importantly, the teachers’ experiences need to be addressed especially in the areas of mental health and educational technologies. More studies are recommended to capture other aspects of inclusion teachers’ experiences. </p> 2024-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Effect on Terminal Velocity with Changing Hole Diameter 2024-05-01T06:37:00+00:00 Shaurya Luthra <p>The idea for this paper was to notice how air resistance acts on a body of the same mass, with different diameter holes. I did this by dropping the hand-made cubes from an equal height of 3.7 metres and checking their terminal velocity. Using softwares such as Tracker and Logger Pro, I came to the conclusion that the drilled holes within the different cubes (made with styrofoam) caused a significant amount of change in the final velocity of the cubes which can be enhanced even further in the bigger picture.</p> 2024-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Development and Applications of a Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Bisphenol A in ‘New’ and ‘Used’ Polycarbonate Baby Feeding and Water Bottles 2024-04-26T06:46:24+00:00 Njoroge Serah Wanjiku Michira Immaculate Nyambura Guto Peterson Momanyi Abong’o Deborah Atieno <p>Recently endocrine disorders have become a big concern. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are contaminants interfering with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or change how the endocrine system works. Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor having weak estrogenic activity and competes with body native estrogen. Polycarbonate containers are known to be major sources of bisphenol A that leaches to the container’s content through hydrolysis. This study aimed at monitoring levels of bisphenol A exposure to polycarbonate users through a novel spectrophotometric technique. The polycarbonate samples used were baby feeding bottles and portable water bottles. The Spectroscopic method employed a diazotization reaction procedure resulting in the formation of yellow azo-dye that is easily detected using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Prior to use, the sampled ‘suspected’ polycarbonate bottles were verified to be Polycarbonate using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.The Fourier transform infrared spectra of thin plastic solids were identified by scanning between, 500-4000 cm<sup>-1</sup> for characterization. The resulting spectra were compared with those of standard polycarbonate plastics reported in the literature. Characteristic polycarbonate peaks at 2970, 1970, 1504, 1187, 1013, 1079 cm<sup>-1</sup> associated with the –C-H, C=O, C=O, O-C-O, -CH<sub>3</sub> stretching vibrations respectively confirmed sampled bottles were polycarbonates. Bisphenol A levels for all the sampled polycarbonate bottles in the various environments ranged between 0.17 – 2.82 µgmL<sup>-1</sup>. All the samples surpassed the tolerable daily intake for BPA of 4 ?g/kgbw/day recommended by the European Food Safety Authority and this calls for serious consideration.</p> 2024-05-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Preparing Learners for the Higher Education Curriculum: Perfecting Argumentative Writing Skills in French as a Foreign Language: An Innovative Teaching Approach with Chatgpt and Interactive In-Class Assessment 2024-04-20T18:28:01+00:00 Sanae EL Wahabi Laila Belhaj <p>This article examines the impact of integrating ChatGPT an advanced artificial intelligence model developed by OpenAI, into the teaching of French as a foreign language (FLE) to first- year baccalaureate students. The main objective of this study is to determine the extent to which ChatGPT can foster the development of linguistic and communicative skills, particularly in the area of argumentation, while addressing the issues of language authenticity, creativity and autonomy in the learning process. Using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative analysis and qualitative reflection, we explored students’ performance and perceptions following the use of ChatGPT. The results show that ChatGPT helped to significantly improve the argumentative writing skills of almost half of the participants, while highlighting the importance of appropriate pedagogical support in overcoming the challenges of linguistic authenticity and creative engagement for learners. This study highlights the potential of ChatGPT as a complementary tool in the teaching of FLE, while recommending a thoughtful integration of technology to enrich the learning experience without compromising the fundamental principles of language education.</p> 2024-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)