International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) is <strong>multidisciplinary peer reviewed Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, and review articles in the following fields (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> Mohammad Nassar for Researches (MNFR) en-US International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2307-4531 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">following terms</a>.&nbsp;</p> On Model Selection Criterion for Finite Gaussian Mixture Models <p>This paper delves into the realm of model selection criteria for Finite Mixture Models (FMM), focusing on key evaluation methods such as the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), Integrated Completed Likelihood (ICL), and the Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT). These criteria aid in balancing model fit and complexity, guiding researchers in choosing the most appropriate FMM for analyzing simulated and real datasets. Through extensive simulation studies, the paper meticulously evaluates and contrasts the performance of these criteria under various parameter settings and sample sizes, offering valuable insights for advancements in statistical modeling. The study underscores the importance of selecting the right criterion tailored to the dataset characteristics and research objectives. It highlights the impact of sample size on model selection, noting AIC's tendency to favor complexity and potential overfitting, while BIC and ICL excel in handling sample size variations by penalizing complexity effectively. The utilization of BLRT for comparing models with different complexities aids in identifying the optimal model configuration. Statistical analyses, including p-value assessments and visual aids like scatter plots and density functions, enhance the understanding of model performance and complexity. Overall, the paper emphasizes the significance of informed model selection decisions, ensuring a robust and accurate representation of underlying models in regression analysis.</p> Aya Ben Shatwan Abdelbaset Abdalla Hatim Mohammed Eisay Bin Ismaeil Ahmed M. Mami Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-06-08 2024-06-08 73 1 68 89 Assessment of B. subtilis Toxicity in Wistar Rats through the Intraperitoneal Route <p>The effect of exposing wistar rats to insecticidal strains of <em>B. subtilis</em> was evaluated in this study to determine the safety of the strain as a biocontrol agent. <em>Z. variegatus</em> were collected from the university agricultural fields with the aid of an insect sweep net, brought to the lab, allowed to acclimatize and watched for the onset of diseased symptoms. The entomopathogenic bacteria was isolated from diseased <em>Zonocerus variegatus</em> and entomopathogenicity was confirmed through reinfection of healthy batch. Diseased <em>Zonocerus variegatus</em> were removed for microbial analysis and B<em>. subtilis</em> was fingered as the main entomopathogen. The microbe was cultured in liquid media, allowed to sporulate, centrifuged and washed with saline buffer. The optimal dose of the bacteria was prepared and introduced into the experimental animals through the intraperitoneal route. Animals were watched for five days before the tissues and organs were taken for hematological and histopathological analysis. Histopathological analysis showed benign effect of the microbe on the experimental animals – a further testimony to the assertion that most entomopathogenic microbes are non-lethal to other non-target animals within the environment thus making <em>B. subtilis</em> a potential candidate for the preparation of microbial pesticides.</p> Babatunde Kelly Tolulope Oyedeji Funmi Olatujoye Olorunjuwon Bello Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-06-17 2024-06-17 73 1 90 101 Lived Experiences of Filipino Inclusion Teachers in Dubai Amid the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>Filipino inclusion teachers based in Dubai; United Arab Emirates faced numerous challenges during the global COVID-19 pandemic. This study shed light on the lived experiences of eight Filipino inclusion teachers through the lens of Kolb’s experiential learning theory. Analysis of interview transcripts using Moustakas’ transcendental phenomenological inquiry revealed that the teachers’ challenges come from their caseload, the exceptionality characteristics of students, physical distance, and adjustment of parents during the pandemic. With the demands coming from these challenges, they managed the learning environment through intensified collaboration with parents and curriculum adjustments. It is hoped that the study results will be utilized in the design of teacher education programs, preparing pre-service teachers and novice teachers for work in schools abroad. In addition, the focus on the experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic provides impetus for the creation of frameworks on how provision of educational services could be pandemic-ready. More importantly, the teachers’ experiences need to be addressed especially in the areas of mental health and educational technologies. More studies are recommended to capture other aspects of inclusion teachers’ experiences. </p> Hannah G. Constantino Therese June V. Aranas Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 73 1 Effect on Terminal Velocity with Changing Hole Diameter <p>The idea for this paper was to notice how air resistance acts on a body of the same mass, with different diameter holes. I did this by dropping the hand-made cubes from an equal height of 3.7 metres and checking their terminal velocity. Using softwares such as Tracker and Logger Pro, I came to the conclusion that the drilled holes within the different cubes (made with styrofoam) caused a significant amount of change in the final velocity of the cubes which can be enhanced even further in the bigger picture.</p> Shaurya Luthra Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 73 1 59 67 The Socio Economic Impact of Cultural Heretage on Sierra Leone: Acase of Brookfield , Freetown <p>Sierra Leone is arguably a country with massive and amiable cultural heritage assets which have greater bearing on the social and economic trajectory of the country. This heritage can be evident in terms of the country’s tangible culture such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, works of art, and artifacts, et al, intangible culture such as folklore, language, knowledge, and natural heritage including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity. Sierra Leone’s cultural heritage is a diverse blend influenced by the topography of the country and large amount of different ethnic groups inhibiting the country. The country and the people are well known for their friendliness and hospitality, with a relaxed pace on life. This Country’s cultural heritage makes it common to be entertained in hotels or restaurants, particularly business visitors.This study employed a cross sectional design with mixed methods of research approach involving questionnaire, and interviews. A purposive sampling technique was used in the selection of the respondents. A sample of eighty (80) respondents was selected purposively in the study areas. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to solicit primary data from targeted population. The data generated were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and results were presented in tables, frequency, graphs and charts. The following were the main findings of the research:Moreover, this study also concluded that there are a range of factors that hinder cultural heritage and this study concludes that lack of human capital on specialized preservation techniques is a major factor that hinders cultural heritage in Sierra Leone and that this can result into devaluation of country’s culture, decreased employment in cultural heritage sector, and most importantly, undergrowth of government’s foreign earnings.Findings in this study also indicated that stakeholders played diverse roles in promoting cultural heritage and such roles could be policy development role, protection and preservation role, funding role and most importantly, education role. This study concluded by providing recommendations for the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. The study recommends that government should build the human capital base on specialized preservation and conservation techniques; cultural heritage studies, archaeological, anthropology and museum education should be taught across all universities; strengthen partnership across the board to sustainably develop the heritage sector; vigorous educational campaign on the promotion of culture and to strengthen the regulatory framework to preserve cultural heritage. The study will help Ministries, Departments, and Agencies of government to have a clear understanding on the potential of Cultural Heritage to national development thereby -making government to pay more attention to the sector as an essential tool for massive revenue generation. It will also help government to have essential understandings on the factors that undermine the potential of cultural heritage to the socioeconomic development of Sierra Leone.</p> Fassie Manju Freeman B. Saidu Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 2024-06-17 2024-06-17 73 1 102 123