International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> (Dr. Mohammad Nasar) (Rabindra Corat Kayastha) Sat, 07 Mar 2020 23:43:01 +0000 OJS 60 An Assessment of the Condition of Fishes in the Amadi Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>A five month study was conducted to determine the condition factor of fishes and physico-chemical parameters of the water, of Amadi Creek, aimed at identifying the wellbeing of fishes in this creek, a medium for waste disposal and other anthropogenic activities. Fishery dependent data of length and weight of sampled species, from the creek, served as inputs for determination of the Condition factor (k). Results indicated the creek fauna composed of 12 species, 10 genera and seven families of fin fishes. The families and species, and their condition factor were: Cichlidae (Sarotherodon melanotheron - 2.3; Sarotherodon galilaeus - 2.5; Hemichromis fasciatus – 1.7; Coptodon guineensis – 2.6; Coptodon zilli - 1.0); Mugilidae (Parachelon grandisquamis - 2.4, Mugil cephalus – 1.3); Clupeidae ( Sardinella maderensis – 1.7 ); Claroteidae (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus – 1.6); Elopidae (Elops lacerta - 0.3); Eleotridae (Eleotris senegalensis – 0.9) and Haemulidae (Pomadasys peroteti - 0.7). Some of the species seemed to be in good condition compared to results of same species obtained from another brackishwater river in the Niger Delta. There was a general reduction in k values in the month of March, fluctuation was observed in K values of S. melanotheron, Coptodon guineensis, Sarotherodon galilaeus and S. maderensis while the values obtained for P. peroteti and Elops lacerta indicated poor condition of the fishes. Estimated Physico-chemical parameters, of the creek water, using standard methods indicated: temperature range of 28.6°C (February) to 35.2°C (March). Dissolved oxygen ranged between 2.1 mg/L (May) and 9.0mg/L (April). The pH ranged from 6.6 (March) to 8.7 (April). Conductivity was: 9.2S/m (April) to 9.9S/m (March), while salinity was: 17.3psu (May) to 24.0psu (February). Most of the&nbsp; physico-chemical parameters were in line with the dynamic nature of brackishwater systems with the exception of high values of conductivity and very low dissolved oxygen content, both indicative of pollution.</p> A. T. Ibim , A. Francis, E. A. Iwalehin Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Wed, 01 Apr 2020 17:19:23 +0000 Consensus Tracking for Multiagent Systems Under Bounded Unknown External Disturbances Using Sliding-PID Control <p>This paper is devoted to the study of consensus tracking for multiagent systems under unknown but bounded external disturbances. A consensus tracking protocol which is a combination between the conventional PID controller and sliding mode controller named sliding-PID protocol is proposed. The protocol is applied to the consensus tracking of multiagent system under bounded external disturbances where results showed high effectiveness and robustness.</p> Ahmed Almalki, Belkacem Kada Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Wed, 01 Apr 2020 16:19:45 +0000 Feeding Dairy Cows with Maize Silage and its Effect in Milk Production and Milk Quality in Hai District <p>A feeding experiment involving 16 lactating improved dairy cows was conducted to test the hypothesis that feeding maize silage (at 25% and 50% inclusion level to (4±3) kg maize stover + green forages and (3±1) concentrates) fed/cow/day based on individual dairy cow requirements would increase milk yield and improve milk composition. The experiment comprised three sequential periods that differed only in the way maize silage was offered to cows (farmers practice without maize silage in the diet, 25% and 50% maize silage in the diets fed in the morning and evening). Intake of individual cows was measured using spring balance (50kg). Compared with farmers practice experiment period, milk yield and milk protein for 25% and 50% inclusion levels of maize silage fed to dairy cows increased significantly (p&lt;0.0001) respectively. There was an average increase in milk production by 50% from 10 to 15 litres per day during the experiment. Neither milk fat content nor milk solid yield was affected (p&gt;0.05) by treatment. The increase in milk yield and milk protein content was presumably associated with an improved diet nutrient balance in the 25% and 50% MS diets fed to dairy cows. In this study, higher-producing dairy cows compensated for their higher requirements by increasing intake of maize silage, rather than pasture, as the former was the less restricted feed on offer. This highlights the importance of offering maize silage to dairy cows with other feeds (maize stover and greed forages) in order to enable high-producing cows in the herd to attain their higher intake requirements. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, feeding concentrates to cows based on individual cow requirements increased milk solids yield at no extra cost.</p> Mkani David Waziri, Peniel Uliwa Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Mon, 30 Mar 2020 16:30:35 +0000 An Evaluation of a Reward Management System used by the Botswana Local Authority: The Case of Gaborone City Council <p>This paper demonstrates the importance of reward management system within an organization within a local authority setting. Most importantly, the aim of this paper is evaluate reward management system used by the Gaborone City Council to motivate Council employees. Nowadays, companies are making many modifications on their rewards system to adopt internal and external changes. Reward system is used as a critical tool for driving business growth and boosting staff morale. It is important to align the right measures and reward systems with firm’s structure and culture. The role of total rewards is achieving business goals, employee productivity and employee retention cannot be underestimated. A total reward strategy has to be linked with the entire employee proposition making it a critical factor in the attraction and retention of talent in organisations. The reward management system is concerned with the formulation and implementation of strategies and policies that aim to reward employees, equitably and consistently in accordance with their value to the organization”&nbsp;[1].</p> Theophilus Tshukudu Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Thu, 26 Mar 2020 05:24:59 +0000 Medical Causes and Emergency Basic Care in the Place of Accidents in Road Traffic <p>Road traffic accidents in Kosovo and around the world are taking many lives, causing casualties; injuries, disability, health problem, suffering, economic problems, family problems and death. Medical causes of road traffic accidents are caused; acute illnesses. Chronic, drugs, alcohol and fatigue etc. The Integrated Education Network of the first medical staff education and training is legally obliged to provide medical care at the scene of the accident to ensure and improve the quality of emergency medical care for victims of road traffic accident. The main purpose of this retrospective research is to identify the main causes of health problems that affect road traffic accidents, reducing morbidity, disability and mortality by implementing first aid measures at the scene of the accident. The research material was taken from the medical documentation of injured in road traffic accidents at the UCCK Emergency Clinic for the period January - December 2019. The research samples were the only injured in road traffic accidents. In the research 5254 cases of road traffic accidents were investigated, the research is of retrospective type, where the medical causes in causing traffic accidents were identified. According to the January - December 2019 patient numbers, there were 86,690 cases requiring medical assistance and 5254 of them being injured in road traffic accidents or 6.06. Medical causes of traffic accidents, 904 cases or 17.20% with diabetes, 680 cases or 12.94% with hypertension, 160 cases or 3.04% with visual problems and other cases with numbers the smallest of cases.</p> <p>Outbreaks with a non-health problem were 3152 cases or 59.99%. finally; Medical Problems Drugs, alcohol can have a direct impact on causing road traffic accidents to a large extent, which need to be timely intervened. The US Integrated Education Network training and training of first medical staff are legally obliged to provide medical care at the scene of the accident to provide and improve the quality of emergency medical care to victims in the event of a road traffic accident.</p> Basri Lenjani, Nuhi Arslani, Nehat Baftiu, Blerim Krasniqi, Shpresa Makolli, Lirije Beqiri, Aferdita Berisha, Erza Mulaj, Dardan Lenjani Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Thu, 26 Mar 2020 05:18:22 +0000