International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Multidisciplinary reputable journal: Peer reviewed, widely Indexed with Impact Factor, fast paper publication, and no deadline for paper submission. en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. 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To obtain an overview of conditions on the surface, it is necessary to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of diurnal and monthly rainfall variations from surface observations. The characteristics of diurnal rainfall can be characterized by patterns of intensity, and peak time of rainfall and the characteristics of monthly rainfall can be characterized by wet months, dry months, climate types and rainfall patterns. Based on the analysis correlation of rainfall anomaly with Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) expected to give a more comprehensive picture of factors influence climate characteristics in seven provinces of food production centers.</p> <p>Based on the analysis of rainfall characteristics, the average annual rainfall in the western region is relatively wetter (&gt; 2500 mm year<sup>-1</sup>) shifting to the middle region The dominant rainfall pattern at the study site is the Monsunal pattern. Some stations in West Java have local and equatorial rainfall patterns including Bogor, Cianjur, Plered. The characteristics of diurnal rainfall during rainy peaks in Lampung occur between 17:00 - 18:00, in West Java the peak of rain occurs between 15:00 - 17:00 in the Central Java I and III sapron in sapron I and II occurring during the day between 13:00 - 15:00. When the peak rains on. Kalimantan has two rain peaks namely afternoon; 14.00 - 15.00 and night; 22:00 - 01:00 In East Nusa Tenggara the peak of rain is 12.00 - 14.00 and in Southeast Sulawesi the peak of rain is between 13.00 - 15.00. Rainfall anomaly in Bogor and Plered two stations in West Java is negatively correlated with OLR index, meaning that the characteristics of rainfall in Bogor and Plered are influenced by local components. Negative correlations between rainfall anomalies and OLR were also found in East Kalimantan, namely Kebun Tabara and Muara Wahau stations. Areas with rainfall diversity that are not only influenced by global components need to be explored further to find out what local components affect the characteristics of rainfall in the region.</p> Kharmila Sari Hariyanti, Tania June, Yonni Koesmaryono, Rahmat Hidayat, Aris Pramudia Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Fri, 24 Jan 2020 07:41:56 +0000 Customer’s Awareness on Genuine Versus Counterfeit Electronic Fiscal Device Receipts in Tanzania; A Case of Moshi Municipal <p>Insufficient tax revenue collection is considered to be an expense in public expenditure that has been accelerated by poor transaction records realized from electronic device stemming from false transactions recorded and produced by EFD machine and reported to tax authority. The main intention of the paper is to assess customers’ awareness on genuine versus counterfeit EFD (electronic fiscal device) receipts. A survey design was employed to 140 respondents; Purposive, stratified and simple random strategies were used to draw the sample size from the population. Data were collected via structured questionnaire and analyzed descriptively in hand with inferential statistics. The study found that, customers are not aware of genuine and counterfeit receipts. There is a huge laxity of behavior tendency among Tanzanians’ of not asking and reading receipts. The problem of underestimating sales figure by traders is still practiced silently in this case. The following recommendations can be undertaken; TRA should take time to classify Item Tax Rates properly, TRA should list down the features of original receipts, TRA needs to work hard to change Tanzanians’ attitude towards revenue collections via encouraging behavior changes, cognition, affects and change what was believed to be normal on tax collections. Sensitizing customers on keep hold of fiscal receipt and present them to authority in case they see any false facts on their receipts. Having Tax officers exchange program or use customers from other regains on regular base to do ghost shopping. The government can invest by fixing CCTV Cameras to monitor trader’s sales point and Sending a regular reminding SMS to every citizen possessing a mobile phone about asking for and reading receipt as well as reporting any misconduct.</p> Ansgar Sakaya Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Fri, 24 Jan 2020 07:23:18 +0000 Applying Bootstrap Robust Regression Method on Data with Outliers <p>Identification and assessment of outliers have a key role in Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis. This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure to identify outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD). After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labeled as good-leverage, bad leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. This procedure is applied to four examples taken from the literature and it is effective in rightly pinpointing outlying observations, even in the presence of substantial masking. This procedure is able to identify and correctly classify vertical outliers, good and bad leverage points, through the use of jackknife-after-bootstrap robust cut-off points. Moreover its two stage structure makes it interactive and this enables the user to reach a deeper understanding of the dataset main features than resorting to an automatic procedure.</p> Ahmed M. Mami, Abobaker M. Jaber, Osama S. Almabrouk Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Tue, 21 Jan 2020 16:45:36 +0000 Preparation and Characterization of the Thermoluminescence Properties of Mg-doped ZnO <p>ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction studies of the sample confirm hexagonal phase. Crystallite size calculated using Scherer equation and found to be 48.5nm for undoped ZnO and 44.3nm for 1% Mg doped ZnO, 40.9nm for 2% Mg-doped ZnO and 38.7nm for 3% Mg-doped ZnO. Undoped sample exhibit unstructured low intense TL glow curve, whereas Mg doped samples exhibit will structured TL glow curves with a broad peak around 280<sup>0</sup>C to 330<sup>0</sup>C &nbsp;depends on the UV energy. The TL response as a function of UV energy showed a linearity behavior over the range investigated, and 1% Mg-doped ZnO sample gives very good reproducibility compared with 2% and 3% Mg-doped ZnO samples.</p> Youssef Abdulla, Abeer Abraheem Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Tue, 21 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Gonad Extracts of Diadema setosum as Potential Antibacterial Agent Derived from Wakatobi District Sea Waters Southeast Sulawesi Province-Indonesia <p>High incidence rates of typhoid fever and urinary tract infections in developing countries are aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics that lead to higher resistance of strains of bacteria, including&nbsp;<em>Salmonella typhi</em>&nbsp;and uropathogenic&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;(UPEC). This dilemma instigates recent studies to find alternative drugs derived from marine resources to reduce the resistance of these harmful bacteria through the utilization of bioactive compounds in the gonad of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>. For that reason, this study was conducted to explore the antibacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract in the gonad of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>&nbsp;on&nbsp;<em>S.typhi</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;bacteria. Chemical screening of bioactive compounds in the gonad of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>&nbsp;used ethyl acetate solvent, whereas the antibacterial sensitivity test was conducted by diluting the gonad extracts in 10% DMSO. Preparation of 10% DMSO was made by mixing 10 ml DMSO with a 90 ml aquadest.</p> <p>Each gonad extract of 1 g, 2 g, 4 g, and 8 g was diluted in 10 ml DMSO with the extract concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80%, respectively. Results of the chemical screening of the gonad extracts of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>&nbsp;showed that the gonad extracts contained flavonoids (orange to red color), steroids (greenish color), and saponin was marked in the form of foam for 15 minutes. Meanwhile, results of the culture test proved that ethyl acetate extract of the gonad of Diadema setosum inhibited the growth of&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;and<em>&nbsp;S. typhi</em>&nbsp;at 80% concentration classified into high inhibition response with mean inhibition response was 21 mm for&nbsp;<em>E. coli</em>&nbsp;and mean inhibition response was 20 mm for&nbsp;<em>S. typhi</em>&nbsp;compared to the concentrations of 40%, 20%, and 10 %. It was concluded that the gonad extracts of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>&nbsp;could be used as a potential novel drug for reducing the resistance of these bacteria. In addition, the gonad of&nbsp;<em>Diadema setosum</em>&nbsp;delivers a potential alternative foodstuff to improve health status and prevents the negative effects of these bacterial strains.</p> Wa Ode Salma, Asriati, Amiruddin Eso, Adius Kusnan, Adryan Fristiohady, Karwika Dwi Saputri Nurdin, Muhammad Rahmat Bastaman, Mu’afif Nur Abdilah, Nabilah Hanun Mudjahidah Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Sat, 18 Jan 2020 10:30:28 +0000