The Potential of Coarsely Ground, Gelatinized and Soaked Maize Grain as Energy Supplements to Arsi-Bale Sheep Fed a Basal Diet of Native Grass Hay
AbstractAn experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design using eighteen yearling male Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 14.27±1.12 (mean ± SD) with the objective of determining effect of supplementing coarsely ground maize (CGM), gelatinized maize (GM), and soaked maize(SM) as energy supplement to native grass hay (GH) basal diet on feed intake, live weight change and carcass parameters of Arsi-Bale sheep. The growth experiment lasted for 90 days followed by evaluation of carcass parameters. The experimental sheep were blocked into six blocks of four animals each based on their initial live weight and animals from each block were randomly assigned to three treatments, giving a replication of six animals per treatments. At the end of the experimental period the sheep were deprived of feed and water for 14 hours to reduce gut content variation before slaughter for carcass evaluation. Native grass hay had high NDF (66.9%) and ADF (43.4%) contents and low CP (6.8%) content. The differently processed form of maize grain used in the experiment had low NDF, ADF and ADL contents. Maize grain supplemented sheep had similar (P>0.05) hay DM, total DM and total OM intake which is at the end also similar in feed conversion efficiency, final body weight, average daily gain and dressing percentage. In the same way no significant differences (P>0.05) were also observed among different forms of maize grain supplementation on rib-eye area, the total edible offal components and carcass parameters because of comparable nutritional profile of the different forms of the grain. Coarse grinding of maize grain was found to be equally effective as other forms of processing such as soaking and gelatinization in improving feed utilization, growth rate and carcass attributes of sheep at lower cost, which could lead to a better profit margin.
Tilahun H, and Schmidt E. 2012. Spatial Analysis of Livestock Production Patterns in Ethiopia. ESSP II Working Paper 44. International Food Policy Research Institute/Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Central Statistics Agency CSA .2013. Ethiopian agricultural sample enumeration 2012/2013., Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Volume II. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings.
IGAD, 2010. The Contribution of Livestock to the Ethiopian Economy - Part II_Sept'14_AD IGAD LPI Working Paper No. 02 – 11
. Leta Samson and Mesele Frehiwot, 2014. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access: Springer Plus 3:310.
Central Statistical CSA (2006) Agricultural Sample Survey, 2005/06 (1998 E.C.), Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 364. Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Central Statistical CSA (2010) Agricultural Sample Survey, 2009/10 (2002 E.C.), Volume II: Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). Statistical Bulletin 468. Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Central Statistical Agency (CSA). 2011. Agricultural sample survey 2010/11. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings). Vol. II, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 114.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA). 2014. Agricultural sample survey 2014.Vol.II.16. NRC. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics (Private peasant holdings). pp: 194
Tolera Adugna, 2007. Feed Resource for producing Export Quality meat and meat Livestock in Ethiopia. Examples from selected Woredas in Oromia and SNNP Regional states. December, 2007. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 46, 52, 75.
Hinner Köster. 2003, improved animal performance through feed processing technology. P.2
Leeuw 'Estrange, J.L., 1997. The performance and carcass fat characteristics of lambs fattened indoors on concentrate diets. Ir. J. Agric. Res. 16: 221-232
Tolera Adugna, Yami Alemu, Alemu D. 2012. Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia: Challenges, Opportunities and the need for transformation. Ethiopia Animal Feed Industry Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Solomon Melaku 2001. Evaluation of selected multipurpose trees as feed supplements in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw based feeding of Menz sheep. PhD Dissertation, Humboldt University, Verlag Dr. Koster, Berlin, Germany
Bodas, R., F.J. Giraldez, S. Lopez, A.B. Rodrıguez, A.R. Mantecon .2007. inclusion of suger beat pult in cereal based diet for fattening lambs. J. Cereal Sci. 34:279-284
Tefera Abu and Francom, Michael, 2015. Assessments of Commodity and Trade Issues Made by Usda Staff and Not Necessarily Statements of Official U.S. Government Policy. Grain and Feed Annual Report
Huntington, G. B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: from basics to the bunk. J. Anim. Sci. 75:852-867.
Owens Fred and Soderlund Steve, 2010, Corn Grain: Assessing Nutritional Value for Livestock. pag. 1. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, a DuPont Business Johnston, Iowa. Minnesota Cattle Feeder Days Publication BP-1004
Gaebe RJ, Sanson DW, Rush IG, Riley ML, Hixon DL, Paisley SI .1998. Effects of extruded corn or grain sorghum on intake, digestibility, weight gain, and carcasses of finishing steers. J Anim Sci 76, 2001-7
Ghabo A, Gana IM, Solomon MD. 2012. Effect of blending speed on efficiency and consistency of a grain drinks processing machine. Int .j.Agron .Agric.ref. 2:4-16
Zemichael Gebreslassie and Solomon Melaku. 2009. Intake, Digestibility, Body Weight and Carcass Characteristics of Tigray Sheep Fed Tef Straw Supplemented with Sesame Seed Meal or Wheat Bran and their Mixtures. East African Journal of Sciences Volume 3
Purchas, R. W. 1978. Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from sufflok cross lambs (Border licester-Romney cross). New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(3): 367-376.
Upton M, 1979. Farm management in Africa: The principle of production and planning. Oxford University press, UK. 282-298p
AOAC (Association Official Analytical Chemists) 1995. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed.; AOAC Inc.: Arlington, VA, USA, p. 1298.
Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis, 1991 Methods of dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides determination in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583- 3593.
Van Soest PJ, and Robertson JB. 1985. Methods of analysis of dietary neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Diary Science 74:3585-3597.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System). 2008. SAS Version 9.2 User’s Giude, SAS Institute Inc.,Cary NC, USA
McDonald, P., R.A. Edwards, J.F.D. Greanhalgh and C.A. Morgan, 2002. Animal nutrition.6th ed. Ashford color press, Gosport. 693 PP.
Assefa G. 2007. Evaluation of Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis) as forage for ruminants. PhD dissertation. Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany, p 213
National Research Council (NRC). 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. 6th ed. National Academy Press, Washington D.C
National Research Council (NRC), 2001. Nutrient requirement of sheep. Sixth revised ed. National Academy press, Washington, DC
Checke PR .1999. Applied Animal nutrition: feed and feeding 2nd ed. Prince hall, Inc. New Jersey. pp 26-96.
Allen, M.S. and Jung, H.G., 1995. Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 2774-2790.
Bakshi, M.P.S. and Wadhwa M. 2004. Evaluation of forest leaves of semi-hilly arid region as livestock feed. Asian-Australasian J. Ani. Sci., 95:93-104.
Broster, W.H., 1978. Protein-energy interrelationships in growth and lactation of cattle and sheep. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 32: 115-122.
McDonald, P., A. Edwards and J.F.D. Greenhalgh, 1981. Animal nutrition. 3rd edition, Longman Inc.
Gebeyew K, Animut G, Urge M, Feyera T. 2015. The Effect of Feeding Dried Tomato Pomace and Concentrate on Nutritional and Growth Parameters of Hararghe Highland Sheep, Eastern Ethiopia. J Adv Dairy Res, 3: 130. doi:10.4172/2329-888X.1000130
Pond WG, Church DC, Pond KR. 1995. Basic Animal Nutrition and Feeding. Fourth edition John Willey and Sons, New York USA
Matiwos S, 2007.The effect of different levels of cottonseed meal supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, live weight changes, and carcass parameters of Sidama Goats. An MSc thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies Haramaya University. pp.1-53
Hagos Tesfay and Melaku Solomon, 2009. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix. 41 (4) pp.34-52
Devendra, C. and Mc Burns, G. A. 1983. Goat and sheep production in the tropics. Longman Singapore Publishers Ltd, pp 178-180.
Getahun Kebede, 2006. Effect of urea treatment and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) supplementation on the utilization of Wheat straw by sheep. An MSc Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. 82p.
Pralomokarn W, Kochapakdee S, Saithanoo S & Northon WB. 1995. Energy and protein utilization for maintenance and growth of Thai native and Anglo-Nubian× Thi native male weather goats. Small Ruminant Research, 16 13-20
Matsoukas, J., D. Liamadis, E. Sinapis, J. Hatziminaoglou, A. Georgoudis, 1987. Effects of breed (Karagouniko, Serres), final live weight and ration energy on the growth rate, feed fficiency and quality of carcass of male lambs in Greek. Anim. Sci. Rev. 6: 5-26
Atti N, Rouissi H, Mahouachi M. 2003. The effect of dietary crude protein level on growth, carcass and meat composition of male goat kids in Tunisia. Small Ruminant Res. 54:89-97..
Hatfield, P.G, 1994. Evaluating methods of feeding, type of grain and form of feed on postweaning performance and carcass characteristics of wether lambs. Vet. Clin. Nutr, Vol. 1, No.1.
Mulugeta, F. and T. Gebrehiwot, 2013. Effect of sesame cake supplementation on feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and carcass parameters in the ration of sheep fed on wheat bran and teff (Eragrostis tef) straw. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science
Kirton, A.H., D.P. Fourie and E.K. Jury, 1992. Growth and development of sheep. III. Growth of the carcass and non-carcass component of the South Down and Romney and their cross and some relationships with composition. J. Agric. Res. 15:214-227.
Sayed, N., 2009. Effect of different dietary energy levels on the performance and nutrient digestibility of lambs. Vet. World 2(11): 418-420.
Yoon Chil-Surk, Nam-Hyung Lee and Keun-Ki Jung, 1986. Quantitative studies of amino acid flow in digestive tract of sheep fed corn and barley diets plus urea and soybean meal. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 59
Riley RR, Savell WJ, Johnson DD, Smith CG & Shelton M. 1989. Carcass grades rack composition on tenderness of sheep and goats as influenced by market class and breed. Small Ruminant Research, 2 273-280.
Mulu Mogos, 2005. Effect of feeding different levels of brewery dried grain on live Weight gain and carcass characteristic of Wogera sheep fed on basal diet. An MSc Thesis presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya University. 54p
Abebe, G., kannan.G.and Goetsch, A.L.2010. Effect of small ruminanr species and origen (high land and lowland) and length of rest and feeding period on harvest measurement in Ethiopia. African journal of agricultural research 5(9):834-847
Berhanu, Alemu, Getachew, Animut and Tolera Adugna . 2014. Effect of Millettia ferruginea (Birbra) foliage supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, body weight change and carcass characterstics of Washera sheep fed natural pasture grass hay basal diet. http://www.springerplus.com/content/3/1/50
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.