The Biology of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Sago Cuttings (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) in Maluku Forest of Sago, Indonesia

  • Rein Estefanus Senewe Major of Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Graduate School, Bogor Agricultural Univesity, Indonesia. Maluku Assesment Institute for Agricultural Technology
  • Hermanu Triwidodo Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
  • Pudjianto Pudjianto Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
  • Aunu Rauf Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Keywords: life cycle, Rhynchoporus feerugineus, Coleoptera, Curculionidae, larvae, sago cutting.


Sago (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) is the most popular crop in Maluku because of its role as the staple food supply for both, local communities and people in general.


Singhal RS, Kennedy JF, Gopalakrishnan SM, Kaczmarek A, Knill CJ, Akmar PF. 2008. Industrial production, processing, and utilization of sago palm-derived products. Carbohydrate Polymers 72: 1

Schuiling DL. 2009. Growth and Development of True Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottboll). with special reference to accumulation of starch in the trunk : a study on morphology, genetic variation and ecophysiology, and their implications for cultivation [disertasi]. English (NL):Wegeningen Univ.

Flach M. 1977. Yield potential of the sago palm and its realization. In M.A. Tankooling (Ed.), Sago

Wattanapongsiri AL. 1966. Revision of the genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bulletin 1, Department of Agriculture Science, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 328.

Rugman-Jones PF, Hoddle CD, Hoddle MS, Stouthamer R. 2013. The lesser of two weevils: molecular-genetics of pest palm weevil populations con?rm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a valid species distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and reveal the global extent of both. PLoS ONE 8 (e78379), 15.

Mazza G, Francardi V, Simoni S, Benvenuti C, Faleiro JR, Ll

Martin B, Shaby SM, Premi MSG. 2015. Studies On Acoustic Activity Of Red Palm Weevil The Deadly Pest On Coconut Crops. Procedia Materials Science 10; 455

EPPO (European, Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). 2007. Data sheets-Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Rhynchophorus palmarum. EPPO Bull.37, 571

EPPO (European, Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). 2008. Data sheets on quarantine pests-Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. EPPO Bull. 38, 55

Guerri-AB, Lopez-FR, Asensio L, Barranco P, Lopez-LLV. 2011. Use of a solid formulation of Beauveria bassiana for Biocontrol of the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) under field conditions in se Spain. Florida Entomologist, 94(4):736-747.

El-Sabea AMR, Faleiro JR, Abo-El-Saad MM. 2009. The threat of red palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus to plantations of the gulf region in the Middle East: an economic perspective. Outlooks Pest Manag. 20, 131-134.

Hoddle MS, Abdul Hadi Al-Abbad, El-Shafie HAF, Faleiro JR, Sallam AA, Hoddle CD. 2013. Assessing the impact of areawide pheromone trapping, pesticide applications, and eradication of infested date palms for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in Al Ghowaybah, Saudi Arabia. Crop Protection 53 (2013) 152-160.

Kalshoven LGE, 1981. Pest of crops in Indonesia. Jakarta(ID): PT Ichtiar Baru-Van Hoeve.

[CSIRO] Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. 1996. The Insect of Australia: A Teexbook for Students and Research Workers. Second Edition. Victoria (AU): Melbourne Univ Pr.

Dadang, Prijono D, 2008. Insektisida Nabati, Prinsip, Pemanfaatan, dan Pengembangan. Penerbit: Departemen Proteksi Tanaman. Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor. ISBN:978-979-25-3571-6.

Whittaker RH, Feeny PP. 1971. Allelochemics : Chemical interaction between spesies. Science 171:757-770.

Schoonhoven LM, van Loon JJA, Dicke M, 2005. Insect plant biology. Second edition. Oxford University Press.

Giblin-Davis RM, Oehlschlager AC, Perez A, Gries G, Gries R, Weissling TJ, Chinchilla CM, Pena JE, Hallett RH, Pierce Jr HD, Gonzalez LM. 1996. Chemical and behavioral ecology of palm weevils (Curculionidae: Rhynchophorinae). Florida Entomol. 79, 153

Murphy ST, Briscoe BR. 1999. The red palm weevil as an alien invasive: biology and prospects for biological control as a component of IPM. Biocontrol 20, 35

Al-Dosary MM, Al-Bekairi AM, Moursy EB. 2010. Morphology of the egg shell and the developing embryo of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 17: 177

Shahina F, Salma J, Mehreen G, Bhatti MI, Tabassum KA. 2009. Rearing of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in laboratory and field conditions for carrying out various efficacy studies using EPNs. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 27, 219

Salama HS, Zaki FN, Abdel-Razek AS. 2009. Ecological and biological studies on the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 42, 392


Gullan PJ, Cranston PS. 2010. Ground-Dwelling Insects: Di dalam Gullan PJ, Cranston PS, Editor. The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. fourth edition Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 242

Fogang AR, Kansci G, Viau M, Hafnaoui N, Meynier A, Demmano G, Genot C. 2017. Lipid and amino acid profiles support the potential of Rhynchophorus phoenicis larvae for human nutrition. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. Vol 60: 64-73.

Darvishzadeh A, Bandani A, Amiri A, Mousavi SQ. 2015. Serine and cysteine proteases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae raised on date palms (Phoenix dactylifera). Journal of Asia-Paci?c Entomology 18:547

Ramos-Elorduy J. 2008. Energy supplied by edible insects from Mexico and their nutritional and ecological importance. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 47(3), 280-297.

van Huis A, van Itterbeeck J, Klunder H, Mertens E, Halloran A, Muir G. 2013. Edible insects: Future prospects for food and feed security. Food and agriculture organization of the United nations (FAO).

Shelomi M. 2015. Why we still don't eat insects: Assessing entomophagy promotion through a diffusion of innovations framework. Trends in Food Science & Technology 45 :311-318.

Metcalf RL, Luckman W. 1975. Introduction to insect pest management. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 587 pp.

Faleiro JR, Abdullah A, El-Bellaj M, Al Ajlan AM, Oihabi A. 2012. Threat of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) to date palm plantations in North Africa. Arab J. Plant Prot. 30, 274-280.

Sallam AA, El-Shafie HAF, Al-Abdan S. 2012. Influence of farming practices on infestation by red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) in date palm: a case study. Int. Res. J. Agric. Sci. Soil Sci. 2, 370-376.

Dilipkumar M, Ahadiyat A, Ma

Motazedian N, Ravan S, Bandani AR. 2011. Toxicity and repellency effects of three essential oils against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 14 (2): 275

Longo S, Colazza S. 2009. Il Punteruolo rosso delle palme e il Castanide delle palme. In: Regione Siciliana

Manachini B, Arizza V, Parrinello D, Parrinello N. 2011. Hemocytes of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their response to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus thuringiensis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 106; 360

How to Cite
Senewe, R. E., Triwidodo, H., Pudjianto, P., & Rauf, A. (2017). The Biology of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Sago Cuttings (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) in Maluku Forest of Sago, Indonesia. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 35(3), 121-138. Retrieved from