Teaching of Practical in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Kakamega County of Western Kenya: A Case of Digital Educational Technology Media Resources

  • Aineah Wang’anya Wambasi
Keywords: Availability, Biodiversity, Biology, DETMRs, PSS, Pedagogy, Practical, Teacher-education, Virtual Specimens.


This study aim was to establish the availability and use of Digital Educational Technology Media Resources (DETMRs) for the teaching of practical in Biology using virtual specimens. This necessitated by environmental changes caused by human activities and climate change affecting the availability of living things for the teaching of practical in Biology.  This survey study carried on the teachers of Biology for the teaching of practical in Biology in 36 Public Secondary Schools (PSS) in Kakamega County, Western Kenya. The study guidance based on the constructivist theory of learning. Thirty-six PSS were randomly sampled, three from each of the twelve sub-counties of Kakamega County for data collection. For each sample school, the respondents were the Principals, Heads of Department (Science) and three teachers of Biology. The data was collected by interviewing of the Principals, while a questionnaire for the teachers of Biology and direct classroom observation schedule. The data collected analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, Chi-Square (X2) at a level of 0.05 of the statistics of significance. The findings indicated that there were no adequate DETMRs in the PSS; the teachers lacked knowledge and skills towards the use of DETMRs in the teaching of practical in Biology. The study may benefit curriculum planners, teacher-education preparation programme developers and stakeholders in science education in improving the teaching strategies of practical in Biology.This may enhance conservation of the Biodiversity of living things for a future generation without destruction of the natural environment by collecting diminishing species of living things for the teaching practical in Biology. The recommendations are: there is need to provide DETMRs to PSS and support technologies by the government; the curriculum developers to provide enhanced intensive teacher-education preparation programmes incorporating DETMRs for professional development of teachers of Biology. 


B. Johnson, & L. Christensen, (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches

(3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

C. Sicilia, (2005). The challenges and benefits to teachers’ practices in constructivist learning environments

supported by technology. Unpublished master’s thesis, McGill University, Montreal.

C. W. Mukwa, (1979). Toward a systematic Approach to Educational Media Use in the Secondary School

Education of the Republic of Kenya: A Field Survey of Tools and Technologies for Learning: Michigan

University, USA Institute of Economic Affairs.

D. R. Wetzel, (2008). Literacy Education Transformation by Digital Media http://david-r-wetzel,suite


E. D. Black, (1998). Staff development baseline needs assessment. Analysis of a statewide survey of

directors and full-time instructors. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428176).

IPCC, (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation,

and Vulnerability Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

J. Creswell, (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

J. Creswell, & V. Plano-Clark, (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks,

CA: Sage.

J. Mugabe, N. Marekia, D. Mukii, (1998). Biodiversity Management in Kenya. Nairobi: African Centre for

Technology Studies Press (Acts).

J. W. Creswell, (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and

qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

K. Schoepp, (2005). Barriers to technology integration in a technology-rich environment. Learning and

teaching in Higher Education: Gulf Perspectives, 2(1), 1–24.

K. Smith-Gratto, & M. M. Fisher, (1999). An aid to curriculum and computer integration: prototypes for

teachers. Computers in the Schools, 15(2). respond. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 30, 85–111.

M. Prensky, (2007). Changing Paradigms from “being taught” to “learning on your own with guidance”.

Published in Educational Technology, July-Aug,2007.

N. Bell, J. Codde, and J. Bell, (2004). Educational Research: An Integral Element in an Educational

Technology Certificate Program. Michigan State University, USA

NBSAP (National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan), (2000). Biodiversity in Kenya.: In Tanui, J.,

Kinuthia, I., (2011). Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property in Kenya:The Legal and Institutional Framework For Sustainable Economic Development. Published by Institute of Economic Affairs.

P. A. Ertmer, P. Addison, M. Lane, E. Ross, & D. Woods, (1999). Examining teachers' beliefs about the role of technology in the elementary classroom. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1/2), pp.54-72.

P. A. Kafu, (1999). Educational media in Instructional Development, (Unpublished paper) Moi University.

P. M. Davies, (2010). On school educational technology leadership. Management in Education, 24(2), 55–61.

T. A. Beggs, (2000). Influences and barriers to the adoption of instructional technology. Paper presented at the Proceedings on the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference, Murfreeboro, TN.

U. Sigri, (2010). The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – April 2010, volume 9 Issue 2

W. J. Pelgrum, (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: Results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers & Education, 37, 163–178.

How to Cite
Wambasi, A. W. (2017). Teaching of Practical in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Kakamega County of Western Kenya: A Case of Digital Educational Technology Media Resources. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR), 35(3), 310-336. Retrieved from https://www.gssrr.org/index.php/JournalOfBasicAndApplied/article/view/8027