Determination of Economic Threshold Level (ETL) of Tobacco Mosaic and Leaf Curl Viruses
AbstractExperiments were conducted for the determination of economic threshold of Tobacco Mosaic and Leaf Curl viruses of tobacco. Infection of tobacco plants occurred naturally in the field. Mean values of yield were obtained after curing of tobacco leaves which varied significantly with incidence of disease. Yield loss assessment of tobacco caused by Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Tobacco Leaf Curl Virus was considered first. Grade index values of tobacco that influence market value and support price of flue-cured tobacco were also considered. Economic threshold values were determined from economic analysis and regression analysis and those were found to be at 4.5% and 4% disease incidence in NC 95 and K326 for Tobacco mosaic Virus and 4% and 4.5% for Tobacco Leaf Curl Virus respectively.
. Afzal, M.; Yasin, M. and Sherawat, S. M. “Evaluation and demonstration of economic threshold level (ETL) for chemical control of rice stem borers, Scirpophaga incertulus Wlk. and S. innotata Wlk”. International-Journal-of-Agriculture-and-Biology. 4(3): 323-325. 2002.
. Agrios, G.. Plant Pathology, 5th Edition. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. 2005, p. 320. ISBN 0-12-044565-4.
. AIS(Agricultural Information Service),. Krishi diary; Khamarbari, Farmgate, Dhaka. 2008, PP 20-35.
. Akehurst, B. C. Tobacco. 3rd Edition Longman group Ltd.,London, 1970, 551 p.
. Anonymous, Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan. Govt. of Pakistan. Min. Food Agric. Livest., Food and Agric. Div. (Econ. Wing), Islamabad. 2006, pp.7.
. Asghar, M.; Suhail, A.; Afzal, M.; Khan, M. A.. Determination of economics threshold levels for the stem borers (Scirpophaga sp.) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis) of rice (Oryza sativa) in the Kallar tract of Punjab, Pakistan. International-Journal-of-Agriculture-and-Biology. 11(6): 717-720. 2009.
. Baby, U. I. and Sanjay, R.Economic threshold level for grey blight disease. Newsletter-UPASI-Tea-Research-Foundation. 14(2): 4. 2004.
Chaplin, J. F. and Mann, T. J. Evaluation of tobacco mosaic resistance factor transferred from burley to flue-cured tobacco. J. Hered. 69:175-178. 1978.
. Cheema, M. S. and Akhtar, M. .Evaluation of economic threshold level of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) in wheat under super imposed application of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Pakistan-Journal-of-Weed-Science-Research.12(4): 257-264. 2006
. Chen, C.N. Determination of the economic thresholds of the brown planthopper in Taiwan. Plant protect. Bull. (Taiwan, ROC), 24,225-233. 1982.
. EPB, Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) of Bangladesh, Report. 2009, 56-77.
. Galon,L.; Agostinetto,D.; Moraes,P.V.D.; Magro,T.D.; Panozzo,L.E.; Brandolt, R.R.; Santos,L.S., Economic threshold level for barnyardgrass (Echinochloa spp.) control decision in flooded rice (Oryza sativa). Planta-Daninha. 25(4): 709-718. 2007,
. Gooding, G. V.; Jr., Lapp, N. A. and Nelson, L. A. An assessment system for estimating the distribution and incidence of tobacco viruses in North Carolina. Tob. Sci. 24:162-165. 1980.
. Hall, G. C.; Graham, A. P. and Roye, M. E. Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus infects the weed Malachra alceifolia in Jamaica. Plant-Pathology. 57(2): 398. 2008.
. AMD, Agro-marketing department, training manual on grading of tobacco leaves, Khamarbari, Dhaka. 2011, 8p.
. Hasan, M.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, M and Amanat, Y. Developing economic threshold level for rice leaf and plant hoppers on kernel rice. Faisalabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Entomological Society. Pakistan-Entomologist. 24(1): 29-32. 2002.
. Hossain E. and Fakir G.A. Study on the occurrence of various diseases of tobacco in the field and prevalence and pathogenicity of fungi associated with tobacco seeds. MS. thesis, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. 27p. 1974.
. Inayatullah, C. Determination of economic threshold level for the control of rice stem borer. Ann. Rep. Rice Res. Inst., Kalashahkaku: 45-46. 1984.
. Jha,Y.N. and Chaturvedi, I. Extent of losses and economic threshold/injury level of Heliothis armigera infesting Cicer arietinum L. in Chhattisgarh. Flora-and-Fauna-Jhansi. 9(1): 9-10. 2003.
. Johnson, C. S. and Main, C. E. Yield/quality trade-offs of tobacco mosaic virus-resistant cultivars in relation to disease management. American Phytopathological Society. Plant Disease 67:886-890. 1982.
. Johnson, C. S.; Main, C. E. and Gooding, G. V., Jr. Crop loss assessment for flue-cured tobacco cultivars infected with tobacco mosaic virus. Plant Disease; 67:881-885. 1983.
. Jones, G. L. and Kenyon, J. M. Measured Crop Performance, Tobacco. Department Of Field Crops;N. C. State College,Raleigh, N. C. Research Report No. 29. 17-19p. 1961.
. KePan, S.; XiangYong, L.; WenLong, Z and Wang-Xi, Main flue-cured tobacco diseases and their control in west region of Fujian. Chinese-Tobacco-Science. (1): 20-23. 2006.
. LaMondia, J. A. The association of Tobacco mosaic virus with green spot of cured wrapper tobacco leaves. Plant-Disease. 92(1): 37-41. 2008.
. Large, E. C. Measuring plant disease. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 1966. 4:9-28p.
. Liu, Z.; Yang, C. X.; Jia, S. P.; Zhang, P. C.; Xie, L.Y.; Xie, L.H.; Yin, Q.Y. and Wu, Z.J. First report of Ageratum yellow vein virus causing tobacco leaf curl disease in Fujian Province, China. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press). Plant-Disease. 92(1): 177. 2008.
. Lucas, G. B. Diseases of Tobacco. 3rd ed. Biological Consulting Associates, Raleigh, NC. 1975, 622 pp.
. Main, C. E. and Proctor, C. H. Developing optimal strategies for disease-loss sample surveys. Pages 118-123 In: Crop Loss Assessment: Proceedings of E. C. Stakman Commemorative Symposium. Univ. of Minn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Misc. Publ. 7. 327 pp. 1980.
. Maity, B. K.; Tripathy, M. K. and Panda, S. K. 2001. Estimation of crop loss due to Crocidolomia binotalis Zell in Indian rapeseed and determination of its economic threshold level. Indian-Journal-of-Agricultural-Research. 35(1): 52-55.
. Malik, Y. P. Estimation of economic threshold level for bud fly, Dasyneura lini Barnes in linseed, Linum usitatissimum L.Journal-of-Oilseeds-Research. 22(1): 100-102. 2005.
. Mayer, A. "Über die Mosaikkrankheit des Tabaks." (in German). Die Landwirtschaftliche Versuchs-stationen 32: 451–-467. Translated into English in Johnson, J., Ed. (1942) Phytopathological classics (St. Paul, Minnesota: American Phytopathological Society) No. 7, pp. 11–-24. 1886.
. McMurtrey, J. E., Jr. Effect of mosaic disease on yield and quality of tobacco. J. Agric. Res. 38:257-267. 1929.
. Michael, O.O. and Pedigo, L.P. Economic injury levels of the potato
leafhopper on soybean on Iowa. J. Econ. Entomol., 67: 29–32. 1974.
. Nainar, P. and Pappiah, C. M . Assessment of yield loss in four tomato varieties due to tomato leaf curl virus (TLCV) disease. South-Indian-Horticulture. 47(1/6): 300-301. 1999.
. NCCIA, North Carolina Crop Improvement Association, Report. 2009, 92-95pp.
. Norton, G. A. Analysis of decision-making in crop-protection. Agro-Ecosystems 3:27-44. 1976.
. Osaki, k. and Inouye. Description of plant viruses. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan. 1979, 45: 62.
. Patel, B. N.; Patel, H. R.; Patel, P. M.; Bhatt, N.A.; Patel, K. D.; Patel, J. G. and Patel, S. T. Assessment of avoidable yield loss due to frog-eye disease in bidi tobacco. Rajahmundry, India: Indian Society of Tobacco Science. Tobacco-Research. 27(2): 187-189. 2001.
. Pattison, A. B.; Stanton, J. M.; Cobon, J. A. and Doogan, V. J. Population dynamics and economic threshold of the namatodes Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus goodeyion banana in Australia. International-Journal-of-Pest-Management. 48(2): 107-111. 2002.
. Paximadis, M.; Muniyappa, V. and Rey, M.E.C. A mixture of begomoviruses in leaf curl-affected tobacco in Karnataka, South India. Annals-of-Applied-Biology. 139(1): 101-109. 2001.
. Radhakrishnan, B. and Baby, U. I. Economic threshold level for blister blight of tea. Indian-Phytopathology. 57(2): 195-196. 2004.
. Rao, N. V. and Rao, C. S. The importance of economics threshold in rice management. Int. Pest Cont., 22(4): 96-107. 1982.
. Saha, A. K.; Nath, P.S and De, B.K. Assessment of yield loss in chilli due to chilli leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease. Research-on-Crops. 6(2): 259-260. 2005.
. Sherawat, S. M.; Inayat, M.; Ahmad, T. and Maqsood, M. K., Determination of economic threshold levels (ETL) for the chemical control of rice stem borers. Journal-of-Agricultural-Research-Lahore. 45(1): 55-59. 2007.
. Singh,S. K.; Mathur, Y. K. and Yadav, D. K. Study on Mythimna separata to establish economic threshold level in rice. Annals-of-Plant-Protection-Sciences. 17(2): 357. 2009.
. Singh, R. S. Plant diseases, Fourth edition. Oxford and IBH, New Dilhi, India. 1977, 67p.
. Suhail A.; Ahmad J.; Asghar M.; Tayyib M. and Majeed M. Determination of Economic Threshold Level for The Chemical Control of Rice Stem Borers (Scirpophaga Incertulas Wlk. And Scirpophaga Innotata Wlk.), Pak. Entomol. 30(2): 127p. 2008.
. Sujeetha, J. A. R. P; Venugopal, M. S and Muthukrishnan, N. Calculation of the economic threshold level and economic injury level for the application of botanicals against rice plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Research-on-Crops. 8(1): 229-231. 2007.
. Taylor, R. A. J.; Shalhevet, S.; Spharim,I., Berlinger, M. J.; Mordechi, S. L., Economic evaluation of insect-proof screens for preventing tomato yellow leaf curl virus of tomatoes in Israel. Crop-Protection. 20(7): 561-569. 2001.
. Todd, F. A. “Tobacco disease control practices for 1980.” 1980, Pages 32-53 in: Tobacco Information.
. UNDP – FAO. Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development. Report to Agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. UNDP- FAO, BGD/81/ 035 Technical Report 2, 1988, 570 pp.
. Valleau, W. D. and Johnson, E. M. The effect of a strain of tobacco mosaic on the yield and quality of burley tobacco. Phytopathology 17:523-527. 1927.
. Vekaria, M. V. and Patel, G. M. Bioeffficacy of botanicals and certain chemical insecticides and their combinations against the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi. Indian-Journal-of-Entomology. 62(2): 150-158. 2000.
. Wernsman, E. A. and Price, E. L.. North Carolina grade index for flue-cured tobacco. 1975, Tob. Sci. 19:119.
. Wolf, F.A., Tobacco diseases and decay. Duke Univ. Press. Durham,N.C. 1957. 396 p.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.