Laboratory Development and Shared Antigenicity of Two Prototype Candidate Citrobacter Freundii Vaccines
AbstractCirobacter freundii are currently standing as a newly emerged human pathogen causing several infection types .It may take an outbreak pattern of nosocomial infectious disease. Thus, a prototype candidate Citrobacter freundii human uro-pathogen were aimed to be laboratory developed in two versions .The first was heat killed intact[CFKV] and the second was stealth live cell wall defective[CFSLV] vaccines. Both versions were found to be; safe ,immunogenic and effective on lapin immune and challenge models. The immune efficacy was up to 80% for CF SLV and 60% for the CFKV vaccines. CFKV and CFSLV vaccines were with no mortality but with mild short lasting morbidity. The criteria of the laboratory developed C. fruendii vaccines were matching that of typhoid vaccine Ty21a.The stealth FCSLV of freundii vaccine has shown shared antigenicity with CFKV vaccine version. Such shared antigenicity was found to be of bilateral nature both in quantitative and qualitative terms. CFKV and CFSLV vaccines induced humoral antibody responses which may be of Th2 dependent B cell responses. T cell responses are far from being operable in the immune efficacy of these vaccines, since C .fruendii are neither obligate nor facultative intracellular parasites . Vaccine lapin cross challenge models are waiting to be explored in a future work.
. J.G.Whalen,T.W. Mully , J.C. English . “Spontaneous Citrobacter fruendii infection in an immunocompramized patients . ” Arch.dermatol, 143(1), 124-125,2007.
. L-H.Liu.,N-Y.Wang ,A.Y.Wu ,C.C.Lin, C-M.Lee, C-P.Liu, “Citrobacter fruendii bacterium:Risk factors of mortality and prevalence of resistance genes. ” J.Microbiol.Immunol.Inf . , 51 , 565-572.
. N.Kamada , K.Sakamoto , J.L.Puente , G.Nunez , “ Humoral immunity in gut selectivity target phenotypically virulent attaching and facing bacteria for intraluminal elimination. ” Cell.Host.and Microbe. ,17,617-627 ,2015.
. M.T.Anderson , L.A.Mitchell , L.Zhao , L.T.Mobley, “Citrobacter fruendii fitness during blood stream infection ” .Sci.Rep. ,8,11792,2018.
. M.F.Darwish, “Exo-polysaccharide vaccine from Citrobacter fruendii induce immunity against inflectional pathogen ” .Kuf.Uni.J.Biol. , 2 ,150-160 , 2017.
. A.A.ALThahab. “Immunological effects of Citrobater fruendii ell free culture in rabbits. ” Baby.Uni.J. ,2(23),605-609 ,2015.
. C.P.Simmons , S.Clart , Ghaem-Maghami. Et al., “Control role for B lymphocyte and CD4+ T cells in immunity to infection with attaching effacing pathogen C.rodentium. ” Inf.Imm.71(9) ,5077-5086 ,2003.
. Q.N.Thewaini. “Biology of Cell wall Defective Microbes From Persistent Pyuria And Haematuria. ” Ph.D. , Thesis , Babylon University, IRAQ, 2002.
. J.J.Sharp, L. Dienes , “Carbohydrate containing antigens from L.forms Proteus. ” J. Bateriol. 78,343-351 ,1959.
. M.A.N.ALShahery,I.M.S.Shnawa, “The immunological adjuvanicity of sunflower oil. ” Vet.Med.Giza. ,37(2) ,291-298 , 1989.
. NIH., understanding Vaccines. , Publication Number ,98-4219, 24-25 , 1998.
. S.A.Plotkin ,Phrma Fact Book. ,109 Pages,52-64 , 2012.
. C.D. Stevens ,Clinical Immunology And Serology:A Laboratory Perspective,3rd.ed . , Philadelphia :F.A.Davis Company ,108-116,137-142.2010.
. R.Sakazaki,T.J.Donovan,” Serology,epidemiology of Vibrio cholera, V. mimicus. ” , Methods In Microbiology, ASM ,1984.16:271-289.
. I.M.S.Shnawa, “A Study on the serogrouping of Vibrio cholera[NAG]. ” Zag.Vet.J.IV(A),161-169,1982.
. A.Collioud ,S.A. Rothen , G. Dietrich, “Developing and manufacturing of attenuated live bacterial vaccines . ” , Bio.Pharm.Int. , 6 ,Suppl ,1-12 , 2008.
. K.P.Rangan, N. Rangan , “Citrobacter :An emerging care associated urinary tract pathogen” .Urol.Ann.5(4):313-314.,2013.
. S.D.Gobal , S.Raj, “ incidence of Citrobacter urinary tract infection in type II diabetes and its relationship to glycemia control . ” Int.Cont.Med.Res. , 4(1) ,60-62.
. L.Bery ,M.Brigl , M.B.Brenner, “ CD4+ T cell effector function and co-stimulatory requirements essential for surviving mucosal infection with attaching effacing pathogen. ” Inf.Immun.74(1) ,673-681 , 2006.
. I.M.S.Shnawa,Q.N.O.Thewaini, “Lapin evaluation parameters for the prototype experimental stealth bacterin prepared from human uropathogen . ” Int.J.Sci. :Basic.Appl.Res.35(1):12-18.,2017.
. B.Adler, Leptospira and Leptospirosis. , Springer,280,2014.
. A.Rabson, I.Roitt ,P.J. Delves . Really Essential Medical Immunology 2nd ed. USA, Blackwellpublications,2005,50-61.
. M.W.Steward . Antibodies:Their Structure And Function.N.Y.Chapman And Hall .1984,55-60.
. S.H.E.Kaufmann et al.,TBVA2020. Advancing Tuberculosis Vaccines from discovery to clinical development.Front. Immunol.8:1203.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.